Published on March 16, 2016
1. Atul Gurav PGDM2-1510 Universal Business School
2. ✣, TABLE OF CONTETNT Timeline 3 Geography 4 Economy 5 Political 6 Charts 7 Comparison (India-Nepal) 8-14 Earthquake in Nepal 15
3. T I M E L I N E 3
4. There is a lot more to Nepal than Mount Everest & Himalayas. From endangered wildlife to sacred cows, from mustard seeds to Yetis this landlocked country is full of fascinating facets G E O G R A P H Y The overwhelming majority of the Nepali population follows Hinduism. Shiva is regarded as the guardian deity of the country. Nepal is home to the famous Lord Shiva temple, the Pashupatinath Temple, where Hindus from all over the world come for pilgrimage Lumbini A location in Nepal that is said to be birthplace of Buddha Nepal's diverse linguistic heritage stems from four major language groups: Indo-Aryan, Tibeto- Burman, Mongolian and various indigenous language isolates. The major languages of Nepal (percent spoken as native language) according to the 2011 census are Nepali Area: 147,181 sq km Capital: Kathmandu 4
5. Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal is heavily dependent on remittances, which amount to as much as 29% of GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for almost 70% of the population and accounting for about one-third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Formal banking in Nepal started with the establishment of Nepal Bank Limited In 1937 AD. The central bank, Nepal Rastra Bank was established after 29 years in the year 1956 As of March 05, 2016, 1 US dollar buys 107.31 s. Against the dollar, the is 8.2 times weaker than the average currency for all countries. E C O N O M Y Currency: Nepalese Rupee Central Bank: Nepal Rashtra Bank 5
6. Nepal has seen rapid political changes during the last two decades. Up until 1990, Nepal was a monarchy under executive control of the King. Faced with a communist movement against absolute monarchy, King Birendra, in 1990, agreed to a large-scale political reform by creating a parliamentary monarchy with the king as the head of state and a prime minister as the head of the government. International Organization Participation Group of 77 IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOS, SAARC, United Nations, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNESCO, WFTU, WTO Bhidhya Devi BhandariKhadga Prasad Oli P O L I T I C A L President: Bhidhya Devi Bhandari PM: Khadga Prasad Oli The Politics of Nepal function within a framework of a republic with a multi-party system. Until May 28, 2008, Nepal was a constitutional monarchy. On that date, the constitution was altered by the Constituent Assembly to make the country a republic. Prime-Minister President 6
7. Unemployment Rate 2.7% Types of Banks in Nepal GDP Inflation Rate Foreign Exchange ReserveLiteracy Rate C H A R T S 7
8. ECONOMY . . Currency Indian Rupee Nepalese Rupee Governement Fedral Republic Democratic Republic GDP $ 2.07 Trillion $ 19.6 Billion GDP Growth Rate 7.29% 5.38% Unemployment Rate 3.6% 2.7% Import of Goods & Services $ 523 Billion $ 8.15 Billion Export of Goods & Services $ 486 Billion $ 2.19 Billion Industry, Value added 24% (of GDP) 15% (of GDP) Manufacturing, Value added 12% (of GDP) 6% (of GDP) Agriculture, Value added 18% (of GDP) 35% (of GDP) Foreign Exchange Reserve $ 298 Billion $ 3.63 Billion C O M P A R I S I O N ENVIRONMENT . Forest Area 23.11 % 25.36% EDUCATION Literacy Rate 69.3 % 59.63 % 8
9. POPULATION Total Population 1.3 Billion 28.2 Million Population Density 435.7 people/sq.km 196.5 people/sq.km Median Age 27.3 Years 23.4 Years Average Sex Ratio 1.08 males/female 0.96 males/female Rural Population 876 million 23 Million Urban Population 419 million 5 million Population Below Poverty Line 21.9% 25.2% HEALTH Life Expectancy at Birth 68 years 69 years Infant Mortality Rate 37.9/1000 live births 29.4/live births MILITARY Military Expenditure 2.43 % of GDP 1.53 % GDP Military Spending $ 50.2 Billion $ 300 Million Military Size 4,768,407 157,750 C O M P A R I S I O N 9
10. India Nepal Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology Y N Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Y Y International Fund for Agricultural Development Y Y International Labour Organization Y Y International Organization for Migration Y Y Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS Y Y United Nations Development Programme Y Y United Nations Department of Safety and Security Y Y United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Y Y United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Y Y Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development Y N United Nations Population Fund Y N United Nations Industrial Development Organization Y N United Nations Human Settlements Programme Y Y United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Y Y United Nations Information Centre Y Y United Nations Children’s Fund Y Y United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Y Y United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women Y Y World Food Programme Y Y United Nations Volunteers Y Y World Health Organization Y Y P R E S E N C E I N UN 10
11. 1962–1970 • In 1962 Sino-Indian border war, the relationship between Kathmandu and New Delhi thawed significantly. India suspended its support to India-based Nepalese opposition forces. • In 1969 relations again became stressful as Nepal challenged the existing mutual security arrangement and asked that the Indian security check posts and liaison group be withdrawn 1970–1990 • The relationship with India was further strained in 1989 when Nepal decoupled its rupee from the Indian rupee which previously had circulated freely in Nepal • In June 1990, a joint Kathmandu-New Delhi communique was issued pending the finalisation of a comprehensive arrangement covering all aspects of bilateral relations 21st Century • In 2005, after King Gyanendra took over, Nepalese relations with India soured. • In 2010 India extended a Line of credit worth US$50 million & 80,000 tonnes of food grains. • Nepal and India signed an important deal on 25 November 2014 as per which India will build a 900 MW hydropower plant at a cost of another USD 1 billion. R E L A T I O N S H I P T I M E L I N E11
12. Government of India provides substantial financial and technical development assistance to Nepal, which is a broad-based programme focusing on creation of infrastructure at the grass-root level, under which various projects have been implemented in the areas of infrastructure, health, water resources, education and rural & community development. The total economic assistance extended under ‘Aid to Nepal’ budget in FY 2014-15 was Rs. 300 crore. India has gifted 502 ambulances and 98 school buses to various institutions and health posts across Nepal’s 75 districts. GOI provides around 3000 scholarships/seats annually to Nepali nationals for various courses at the Ph.D/Masters, Bachelors and plus–two levels in India and in Nepal. As close neighbours, India and Nepal share a unique relationship of friendship and cooperation characterized by open borders and deep-rooted people-to-people contacts of kinship and culture. There has been a long tradition of free movement of people across the borders. It shares a border of over 1850 kms in the east, south and west with five Indian States – Sikkim, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Modern-day India and Nepal initiated their relationship with the 1950 Indo- Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship and accompanying secret letters that defined security relations between the two countries, and an agreement governing both bilateral trade and trade transiting Indian territory. R E L A T I O N S H I P OVERVIEW POLITICAL 12
13. Since 1996, Nepal’s exports to India have grown more than eleven times and bilateral trade more than seven times; the bilateral trade that was 29.8% of Nepal’s total external trade in 1995-96 reached 66% in 2013-14. Exports from Nepal to India increased from INR 230 crore in 1995-96 to INR 3713.5 crore (US$ 605 million) in 2013-14 and India’s exports to Nepal increased from INR 1525 crore in 1995-96 to INR 29545.6 crore (US$ 4.81 billion) in 2013-14. The main items of exports from India to Nepal are petroleum products, motor vehicles and spare parts, machinery and spares, medicines, hot rolled sheets, wires, coal, cement, threads and chemicals. The main items of exports from Nepal to India are polyester yarn, textiles, jute goods, threads, zinc sheet, packaged juice, cardamom, G.I. pipe, copper wire, shoes and sandals, stones and sand. Some large Indian investors include ITC, Dabur India, Hindustan Unilever, VSNL, TCIL, MTNL, State Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Life Insurance Corporation of India, Asian Paints, CONCOR, GMR India, IL&FS, Manipal Group, MIT Group Holdings, Nupur International, Transworld Group, Patel Engineering, Bhilwara Energy, Bhushan Group, Feedback Ventures, RJ Corp, KSK Energy, Berger Paints, Essel Infra Project Ltd. and Tata Power etc R E L A T I O N S H I P ECONOMIC 13
14. CULTURE An MoU between the Sahitya Kala Akademi (India) and the Nepal Academy is already in operation. More MoUs have been signed: • Doordarshan and Nepal TV, • Lalit Kala Akademi, India and Nepal Academy of Fine Arts, • Youth Exchange between the Governments of India and Nepal, • Sangeet Natak Akademi, India and the Nepal Academy of Music & Drama, are under consideration to promote cultural and information exchanges between the two countries. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is involved in the renovation of the Pashupatinath Temple Complex in Kathmandu. Two ASI teams have already visited Kathmandu to assess the work to be done for conservation/restoration of the Pashupatinath shrine, for which an MoU is under consideration. R E L A T I O N S H I P Government of India initiatives to promote people-to-people contacts in the area of art & culture, academics and media include cultural programmes, symposia and events organized in partnership with different local bodies of Nepal, as well as conferences and seminars in Hindi. 14
15. When a devastating 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal on 25 April 2015, the Government of India swiftly dispatched National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) teams and special aircrafts with rescue and relief materials to Nepal. India’s assistance, which reached Nepal within six hours of the earthquake. Medical teams from India were deployed in various parts of Nepal. India helped in restoring 3 power sub–stations in Kathmandu valley. India’s role during Nepal Earthquake (2015) 15
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