Published on March 11, 2014
Dynamic Simulation With Application to HFE and Control System Design Validation firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Nuclear Power Industry Goes Digital • Digital instrumentation and control (I&C) and digital control rooms have become a key focus of the nuclear industry. • New plant designs and the life extension of older plants require the industry and the regulator to understand and validate these system designs and their performance. • Why? To budget and schedule risk, and for safety!
3 The Goal/Opportunity of Engineering Simulator & HFE • New and existing plants will all eventually use digital controls: – Projects are high risk and delays in initial startup cost around $1 million per day – The simulator has been proven as a V&V tool for I&C systems • Digital systems are easy to change and optimize but require a validated process (NUREG 0711): – The engineering simulator provides a platform to prove the performance and safety of system changes Figure 2: Performance improvement based on a digital transformation of the operating model Figure 1: Performance based on current operating model Figures from INL Study
4 Nuclear Regulatory Guidance • The U.S. NRC reviews the HFE programs of applicants for: – Nuclear power plant construction permits – Operating licenses – Standard design certifications – Combined operating licenses • Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: – Standard review plan (NUREG-0800) – HFE program review model (NUREG-0711) – Human-system interface design review guidelines (NUREG-0700) – These documents were last revised in 2012
5 Nuclear Regulatory Guidance • The NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. • The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported.
6 How is an Engineering Simulator Different? • Real-time simulators traditionally have been training tools (driven by nuclear industry): – Full plant modeled but computing power limited the fidelity – Models often “hand crafted” to mimic plant dynamics – Basic models adequate for analog controls, traditional hard panel control panels, and “old school” plant process computers • Today’s real-time simulator is high-fidelity: – Same scope, but… – High-definition predictive models used to model plant systems • Engineering-grade models for thermodynamics and neutronics • HD first-principle models used for all other systems • Digital controls and modern digital interfaces provide very detailed view of systems/plant – As a holistic dynamic plant model
7 • Holistic engineering V&V platform • Solving system design issue in integrated plant environment • Allow validation of plant system designs in an integrated environment • Allow the validation of systems design in transient and steady state conditions • Controls system design and V&V • Real-time HD simulator provides first holistic view of the plant • Validation and refinement of logic and controls strategies is a key value of simulator • Human factors engineering platform • Support design of DCS interface, alarms, electronic procedures etc.. • Support design of digital control rooms, information layout and CONOPS • Demonstrate viability of these designs to regulator (show me) • Develop and validate operating procedures • Provides the plant buyer a simulator for training & licensing operators earlier in the plant design and construction process Role of the Engineering Simulator
8 Relevant Simulator Experience • Fossil DCS upgrades (virtual commissioning) • Experience with 1st-of-a-kind projects – Westinghouse AP1000 – Pebble bed modular reactor – NuScale Power – mPower – B&W FutureGen – Ultra Supercritical – Rolls Royce (Royal Navy) Simulator Score Card Pressurized Water Reactor 85 Boiling Water Reactor 60 Fossil Fuel Plant 118 Process Plant 84 Graphite Moderated Reactor 8 Advanced Gas Reactors 4 Major Mods, Rehost, Upgrades 125
9 GSE 1st-of-a-Kind Engineering Simulator Experience Pebble Bed Modular Reactor IGCC China Westinghouse AP1000 NuScale Power Ultra Supercritical Korea SMART Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute HYH CPR-1000 HFE and Control V&V Platfrom B&W mPower Engineering and HFE Simulator
10 HFE Simulators • USNRC – Upgrade & convert existing simulator with digital human system interface – RELAP5-HD primary model – Digital control room interface • USNRC – Generic PWR (ANS 3.5 simulator) – Vpanel interface platform – Developing digital HIS • INL – Generic PWR (ANS 3.5 simulator) – NuScale SMR HFE simulator
11 More HFE GPWR Simulators • University of Central Florida (under contract to the US NRC) – Orlando, FL USA • Tennessee Valley Authority (Chattanooga State) – Chattanooga, TN USA • Nagoya University (supplied by NEL) – Nagoya, Japan • University of Manchester – Manchester, UK • Halden Reactor Project – Halden, Norway • Ohio State University – Columbus, OH USA • Texas A&M University – College Station, TX USA • Lockheed Martin Corporation – Grand Prairie, TX USA • EDF UK – Gloucester, UK • City University Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong • University of Virginia (in procurement) – Charlottesville, VA • Center for Advanced Engineering and Research (in procurement) – Forrest, VA USA • Auburn University (in procurement) – Auburn, AL USA” • GSE’s GPWR is based on an actual operating nuclear plant – Thoroughly exercised and validated. – Complete with full documentation including procedures and training materials.
1st-of-a-Kind Engineering Simulator Project Perspective
13 Example: New SMR (NuScale) • Current NRC requirements do not accommodate the next generation SMR control room designs: • Requirements for large scale reactors need to be evaluated for their appropriateness to SMR operations. • Current requirements interfere with the economic model of some SMRs.
14 Background • The dynamic simulator will be the platform for the development and demonstration of this new plant design: – HFE Platform for the new control room design – Control system design and V&V platform – System design validation platform – Marketing tool – Training (critical path to plant operation)
15 Control Logic and Interface Design • Engineers develop controls, logic, basic control screens, and operating procedures – JControl – JDesigner • System design data is validated on high- fidelity models – Steady state and transient conditions – System performance is fed back to system design engineers via JStation
16 HFE Simulator (Control Room) HFE Simulator 12 Modules plus common systems 12 RELAP5, S3R, etc. 12 operator stations Engineering Simulator 1 Module 1 RELAP5, S3R, stc.
17 Westinghouse AP1000 • Project objectives/deliverable – To provide an integrated 1st-Principle high-fidelity simulator models (actual plant is being designed) for: • Human factors engineering (HFE) • I&C/DCS validation & testing (simulated DCS) • Train Westinghouse staff on use of simulation technology • Major Project Achievements – 12 months project schedule (initial phase), on- time delivery – Communication interfaces between SimExec and Ovation DCS – Developed and V&V the plant system models synchronize with plant design schedule • Project Status – Complete all 3 phases of implementation – Building 4 full-scope simulators for Westinghouse • Project Duration – November 2004 to November 2006 17 Initial Control Room Layout Most Recent Control Room Layout
18 • Reduce Project Risk – Continuously validate system designs early in design process • Steady state • Validated in integrated and transient conditions – Provide a platform for validation of DCS system – Provide a demonstration platform for regulators and customers of plant operation and safety • Reduce Project Costs – Provide platform for continuous development of control and protection logic strategies on lower cost simulation platform – Flexible lower cost HFE/control room development platform – Delay commitment to a DCS vendor until the sale of the plant, allow customer to choose DCS vendor Engineering Simulator Value
19 Engineering Case Study • ConEd Coal Station – Plant initial commissioning – Scheduled for 24 weeks – Simulator purchased prior to plant startup to improve training and operation, but… • As a result of the virtual commissioning of the digital control system: – Startup was reduced by 12 weeks – 84 days of revenue generation was recovered at $500K/day – $42M additional revenue – Simulator cost = $3.8M • This is typical for a these types of projects
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