Dust Explosions Silo Hopper Fires

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Information about Dust Explosions Silo Hopper Fires
Education

Published on February 19, 2014

Author: PSHSAca

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Approximately 50 dust explosions are reported each year, resulting in hundreds of deaths, yet these are the least recognized industrial hazard.

Dust Explosions

Dust Explosions Approx 50 explosion are reported each year Resulting in hundreds of deaths Yet are the least recognized Industrial hazard 2

Dust Explosions February 1999, Massachusetts Iron foundry A small, primary Resin dust explosion within the ductwork, fuelled a secondary explosion, powerful enough to lift the roof and cause wall failures. 3 people were killed, and 9 were injured. 3

Dust Explosions January 2003 – North CarolinaPharmaceutical plant that manufactures rubber drug delivery components A fire and a series of explosions destroyed the plant with minor damage surrounding area 6 people killed and 38 injured including 2 firefighters 4

Dust Explosions February 2003 - Kentucky insulation manufacturing plant. Primary blast was ignited by a small fire while cleaning A deadly cascade of dust explosions followed throughout the plant. 7 people were killed and 37 injured 5

Dust Explosions February 2008 – Georgia Imperial Sugar refinery Dust Explosions ripped through the plant destroying 2 silos and 1 building Seven days to extinguish 13 people were killed and 17 injured 6

Dust Explosions US Chemical Safety Board (CSB) identified 281 dust fires & explosions between 1980 & 2005 In the USA alone, Dust explosions in the last 25 yrs killed 119 workers and injured 718 others. Wood & Coal Dust explosions are by far the leading sources for Explosions Dust Collection/ Hopper systems are the leading equipment type for Explosions 7

Dust Explosions Can occur anywhere combustible dust is produced Can be almost any organic material An Explosion be initiated by any energy source. Sparks, Friction, Open Flames, Heat Usually results in secondary explosions 8

Dust Explosion Pentagon Dust Explosion Pentagon 9

Dust Explosions Rules for dust explosions. Must be combustible. Dust cloud must be confined. Capable of becoming airborne. Size & distribution = flame spread. Explosive range 50g/m3 to 23kg/m3 10

Dust Explosions Dust / Powders that CAN Explode Natural Organic materials (grains, linen, sugar, coal, peat) Synthetic Organic materials (pesticides, plastics, resins) Metals ( aluminum, zinc, iron) Any Unstable Oxide 11

Dust Explosions Dust / Powders that WILL NOT Explode Silicates, Sulphates Nitrates,Carbonates,Phosphates Cement, Sand, limestone Any Stable Oxide 12

Dust Explosions Glass breaks at 50 kpa (7 psi.) Wood frame at 56-70 kpa (8-10 psi.) Reinforced concrete 70-85 kpa (10-12 psi.) FORCE FROM DUST EXPLOSIONS CAN EXCEED 700 kpa or 100 PSI 13

Hopper Fires 14

Hopper Fires Characteristics. Funnel Shaped On legs or stilts Loaded from the top Unloads from the bottom. 15

Hopper Fires- Incident Command Be aware of the potential for explosions Initial Defensive Strategy Establish large “Hot Zone” Evacuate civilians to safe distance 16

Hopper Fires- Incident Command Protect exposures including the building the hopper serves Establish water supply sufficient volume for worst case scenario Lock out / Tag Out each power source 17

Hopper Fires- Incident Command I/C Size Up Built in Suppression systems Explosion venting systems / access doors Loading / Unloading systems Type & level of product Expert advice 18

Hopper Fires- Incident Command I/C Action Plan Utilize built in Suppression systems Activation may trigger an explosion No personnel on /near the hopper when the suppression system is activated Operate system till fire is extinguished 19

Hopper Fires- Incident Command I/C Action Plan Access doors - Open Probability of Dust Explosion is reduced Access Doors could be used to position Aerial Ladder for low pressure fog stream Raise Aerial to similar height and set pump pressure for low pressure fog stream Use minimum number of personnel 20

Hopper Fires- Incident Command I/C Action Plan Access doors - Closed Opening Access doors is an extremely Hazardous Operation Limit personnel when opening access doors or explosion relief panels Use least dangerous method possible ( tie a rope to handle and use elevated device to unlatch door) FLOOD HOPPER ( low press fog) 21

Hopper Fires- Incident Command I/C Action Plan Unloading a Hopper Unloading kept to a minimum with light water fog played on product exit When hopper gates are closed wet down the area to reduce the possibility of dust in the air Firefighters should commence carefully removing the product from the area Repeat until the Hopper is empty 22

Hopper Fires- Incident Command Safety If the risk of Explosion is too great – Defensive position Maintain an awareness of the Hopper weight due to water added during firefighting operations Minimize any actions that disturb the dust in the Hopper Treat all Fires in Dust Collectors / Hoppers as Potential Severe Explosion Hazard 23

Hopper Fires- Incident Command Dec 21 2005 Salisbury Maryland 24

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Silo Fires / Explosions Significant Fires and Explosions. Alabama California Ohio New York Nova Scotia – Halifax 2003 Georgia – Imperial Sugar – 13 Killed Ontario – 2006 Perth, 2008 Woodbridge 26

Silo Fires / Explosions Fire Fighter Serious Injuries / Deaths. Georgia 1993 – 2 FF killed Texas 2000 – 1 FF Killed North Carolina 2001 – 3 FF injured Nebraska 2002 – 13 FF injured ( shredded Rubber Silo) Missouri 2005 – 2 FF killed Ohio ( Twice) – 1985 & 2003 – 5 FF killed 27

Firefighter Injuries / Deaths August 27th 1985 Marshville Ohio. Three Firefighters killed, 4 injured. Concrete Oxygen limiting silo. 50 minutes into fire operations. 10,000 liters of water applied. SILO EXPLODED 28

Firefighter Injuries/ Deaths October 1st 2003 New Knoxville Ohio. Two FF’s Killed – 8 injured Concrete Modified Oxygen Limiting Silo. 2.5 hours into firefighting operations. 30,000 liters applied. SILO EXPLODED 29

Firefighter Injuries / Deaths December 21st 1997 Iredell County N.C. Three Firefighters severely injured. Metal Oxygen limiting silo. 2.5 hours into firefighting operations. 40,000 liters of water applied. SILO EXPLODED 30

Silo Fires / Explosions Silo Classifications. Conventional. Oxygen limiting. Modified Oxygen Limiting. 31

Conventional Silos Characteristics. Most common type. Reinforced Concrete or Concrete staves wrapped in steel bands. Domed roof ( metal ). Top unloading. Unloading chute. 32

Conventional Silo Characteristics. Most common type. Reinforced Concrete or Concrete staves wrapped in steel bands. Domed roof ( metal ). Top unloading. Unloading chute. 33

Conventional Silo Characteristics. Most common type. Reinforced Concrete or Concrete staves wrapped in steel bands. Domed roof ( metal ). Top unloading. Unloading chute. 34

Oxygen Limiting Silos Characteristics. Reinforced concrete, or metal (blue, green) Design limits amount of oxygen in silo. Flatter roof than a conventional silo. No exterior openings or unloading chutes. Unloads from the bottom. 35

Oxygen Limiting Silos Characteristics. Reinforced concrete, metal ( blue, green ) Design limits amount of oxygen in silo. Flatter roof than a conventional silo. No exterior openings or unloading chutes. Unloads from the bottom. 36

Oxygen Limiting Silos Top unloader to center chute No exterior openings or unloading chutes. Unloads from the bottom. 37

Oxygen Limiting Silos Flatter roof. Venting valves. Airtight Hatch Cover. Hatches will be sealed with gaskets / clamps. 38

Oxygen Limiting Silo Satin Finish Flooring 200 Fenmar Dr 39

Modified Oxygen Limiting Silo Modified from Conventional to Oxygen Limiting Bottom unloading. No external chute. Oxygen Limiting to Conventional. Top / bottom unloading. Top unloading -external unloading chute and hatches. Always Treat as Oxygen Limiting 40

Modified Oxygen Limiting Silo Satin Finish Flooring 8 Oak St. 41

Modified Oxygen Limiting Silo Satin Finish Flooring 8 Oak St.. Modified from Oxygen Limiting to Conventional Silo 42

Firefighting- Silos Personal Protection Equipment. S.C.B.A.: smoke, gasses, oxygen deficiency. I.M.S.: large hot zone, Safety Officer, R.I.T.. Fall arresting devices: heights. Confined space: avoid entering. 43

Firefighting-Silos Disconnect power sources: lock / tag out. Protect exposures: embers, adjacent buildings. Extent / location of fire. Amount of heat, smoke and flames. Thermal imaging camera. Drier concrete shades. 44

Firefighting-Conventional Silos Generally slow burning, deep seated fires. Contain the Fire Usually near the unloading doors. Normally within the top 10 feet of the silage. 45

Firefighting-Conventional Silos Knock down surface burning first. Don’t flood: will not withstand lateral pressure. Do not apply water to exterior of silo. Minimal chance of structural collapse from heat Extinguish pockets with straight streams, piercing applicators. 46

Firefighting-Conventional Silo Early stages Extinguish surface fire. Locate hotspots. Inject water. directly into hotspot Open hatches above to allow for venting. 47

Firefighting-Conventional Silos Advanced Fires. Leave to burn themselves out. Product is unsalvageable. Fires in concrete silos do little harm. Protect exposures to prevent spread of fire. Unload silo to ensure complete extinguishment 48

Firefighting-Conventional Silo Do Not flood the silo. Water follows path of least resistance. Water will run down the walls, passing most of the hot silage. Inject water directly into hot spots. 49

Firefighting-Oxygen Limiting Silo Anticipate an Explosion. Establish a large Explosion Zone. Water supply for a worst case scenario. Do nothing to increase the level of oxygen in the silo. DO NOT USE WATER / FOAM. 50

Firefighting-Oxygen Limiting Silo If Silo is quiet and no smoke / steam. Seal unloading doors if possible. close top-hatch. Do not latch top hatch cover. 51

Firefighting-Oxygen Limiting Silo May require injection of Liquid Nitrogen or Carbon Dioxide. (trained professionals). Seal silo for up to three weeks. 52

Firefighting-Modified Oxygen Limiting Silo Always treat a Modified Oxygen Limiting Silo as an Oxygen Limiting Silo. 53

Firefighting- Silos Pre-plan silos in your Command. Type, age, and contents. Fire suppression systems (sprinklers). Information site personnel, Experts. Have time to review and confirm pre-plans. 54

Silo Gases Carbon Monoxide (CO). Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) – Silo gas. 55

Silo Fires / Explosions It is essential that the incident commander determines the type of silo, whether the Silo is a Conventional, Oxygen Limiting, or modified oxygen limiting. NEVER proceed with extinguishing procedures until you are certain the type of Silo The contents of a Silo are never worth putting a firefighter’s life at risk 56

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