droughtmanagementandwaterharvestingm5-120730075742-phpapp02

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Information about droughtmanagementandwaterharvestingm5-120730075742-phpapp02
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Published on July 23, 2014

Author: sim07

Source: authorstream.com

Drought Management and Water Harvesting : Drought Management and Water Harvesting . Contents: Contents Definition of drought, Causes of drought, measures for water conservation and augmentation , drought contingency planning. Water harvesting: rainwater collection , small dams, runoff enhancement, runoff collection, ponds, tanks. Introduction : Introduction Normal, recurrent feature of climate Occurs everywhere, vary from region to region. Originates from deficiency of precipitation. Impact on ecosystem and agricultural of affected region. Drought leads to food insecurity, famine, malnutrition, epidemics and displacement of populations. Types of drought: Types of drought Meteorological drought Agricultural drought Hydrological drought Socioeconomic drought Causes of drought: Causes of drought Reduced rainfall results in drought. Occurs because water vapour not brought by air currents to right areas at right times. Unusual currents of cold and warm water in oceans creates high pressure. El Nino causes drought in Asia. Mountain prevent wind from blowing moisture to needy region. PowerPoint Presentation: In India when water vapour moves from east to west, water vapour does not leave Indian ocean causes drought. Human activity directly trigger over farming, excessive irrigation, deforestation. Global warming result in rainfall in some areas and drought in some areas. Drought contingency planning : Drought contingency planning To provide contingency plans to manage drought and emergency conditions. To continue to deliver a cost effective, adequate, safe and reliable supply of water. The provision of credit or cash/food for work Maintaining water supply for animals and humans PowerPoint Presentation: Maintaining cereal availability Human and livestock health service provision Support for private sector Provide fodder for affected stock Flexible taxation systems for affected people PowerPoint Presentation: Drought contingency planning allow for implementation of : Mitigation Relief Rehabilitation PowerPoint Presentation: Drought contingency planning for implementation: Overall drought policy, setting out plans objectives of minimizing the impact of drought Set plans for specific mitigation, relief and rehabilitation measures Construction of dams and additional reservoirs for supply of water. Cloud seeding- artificial rain PowerPoint Presentation: Desalination of sea water for irrigation or consumption. Drought monitoring by total rainfall levels and total usage levels Land use by carefully planned crop rotation Outdoor water use restriction Rainwater harvesting Recycled water Relief works Disease prevention and control PowerPoint Presentation: Contingency planning done by Govt. Policy issues, national, regional and district level rural development infrastructure input supply, marketing and farm advisory services Non- Govt. NGO’S Rural institutions Private sectors Augmentation of water: Augmentation of water It includes methods for providing an entirely new supply of fresh water and techniques for increasing utility of available supplies of water. New supply of water include weather modification. Weather modification done to increase precipitation and decrease Evapotranspiration. Cloud seeding done to increase precipitation. PowerPoint Presentation: Available water supplies increased by conservation of available water supplies. Agricultural water requirements can be reduced by reducing conveyance losses, and discouraging wasteful irrigation techniques. Technique should be developed to reduce water consumption in home and industry. Evaporation losses from small reservoirs can be reduced by providing roofs. PowerPoint Presentation: Reclamation and reuse of waste water can be encouraged. Evaporation loss in ground water is less. Use of ground water storage reservoir in conjunction with surface storage reservoirs. Infiltration losses can be reduced by sealing the soil surface useful in arid regions. Water harvesting done by collecting from roof top, pavements, constructing small storage. Measures for water conservation : Measures for water conservation Goals of water conservation efforts include: Sustainability- ensure availability for future generations Energy conservation- world 15% energy production dependent on water management. Habitat conservation- preserve fresh water habitat, migrating waterfowl. PowerPoint Presentation: Benefits of water conservation: Save water save money. Reduction in excess water use reduce waste water generation, reduce overflowing of gutter. Ecosystem and habitat protection. Helps in improving quality of drinking water. PowerPoint Presentation: Agricultural (irrigation) conservation Improved irrigation methods such as sprinklers or drip irrigation. Water required for agricultural considerably reduced by reducing conveyance loss. Evaporation losses from small reservoirs can be reduced by providing roofs over them. Use of lined canals which reduce seepage and evaporation. PowerPoint Presentation: Use of ground water storage reservoir in conjunction with modern surface storage reservoirs to reduce evaporation loss, in arid regions. Price agricultural water to encourage conservation. Infiltration losses reduced by sealing soil surface. Water harvesting in arid regions. PowerPoint Presentation: For conservation of water the following structures can be constructed: Earthen bund Gully plugging Check dam Khet talawadi PowerPoint Presentation: Earthen bund PowerPoint Presentation: Gully plugging PowerPoint Presentation: Check dam PowerPoint Presentation: Khet Talawadi Water harvesting: Water harvesting Collection of rain water called water harvesting. Rainwater harvesting is accumulation and storing of rainwater for reuse, before it reaches aquifer. Water collected from roofs of houses, schools, local institutions make important contribution. Water collected from ground, called storm water harvesting. PowerPoint Presentation: Benefits of rainwater harvesting Increase water availability Checks declining water table Environmental friendly Improves water quality of ground water Surface water runoff conservation Prevents soil erosion and flooding in urban area PowerPoint Presentation: Rainwater harvesting technique Rainwater collection – Roof top rainwater harvesting Runoff collection – Surface runoff harvesting Recharge to ground water Runoff enhancement Roof top rain water harvesting: Roof top rain water harvesting Rainwater captured from roof catchments and stored in sub surface ground water reservoir. Objective is to make water available for future use. Useful in dry land, hilly, urban and costal areas. PowerPoint Presentation: Components of roof top rainwater harvesting a collection area a conveyance system storage facility a delivery system Storage reservoir expensive part, careful design and construction required. First rainwater should be flushed or diverted. Surface runoff harvesting: Surface runoff harvesting Surface runoff harvesting is traditional technique. Small dams, ponds, tanks are used. Used for irrigation, domestic, livestock use. PowerPoint Presentation: Small dams Small dams/check dams constructed in natural channel to impound the runoff water up to certain depth. Impounded water slowly infiltrate into soil and recharge ground water. PowerPoint Presentation: Ponds and reservoirs Impounding type and dug-cut type ponds constructed. In impounding type, a retaining wall or dam is constructed to block the flow of water in a natural storm. In dug-cut type area is excavated to store the runoff. Reservoirs requires water storage area, spillways and earth embankment. PowerPoint Presentation: Storage tank Surface or above ground tank Subsurface or underground tank Storage tanks require Solid secure cover Coarse inlet filter Overflow pipe Manhole, sump and drain to facilitate cleaning Outlet system, tap or pump Recharge to ground water: Recharge to ground water The structures generally used: Pits Trenches Dug well Hand pumps Recharge well Spreading techniques Underground reservoirs

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