Drama Overview

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Information about Drama Overview
Entertainment

Published on October 17, 2007

Author: Shariyar

Source: authorstream.com

DRAMA OVERVIEW:  DRAMA OVERVIEW ORIGINATED IN ANCIENT GREECE. MORE THAN ANY OTHER LITERARY FORM A VISUAL MEDIUM. DRAMA OVERVIEW (cont.):  DRAMA OVERVIEW (cont.) READING A PLAY: NO INTERVENING INTERPRETATION BY ACTORS, DIRECTORS. UNIQUE TEXTUAL FEATURES: STAGE DIRECTIONS, LIST OF CHARACTERS. GREEK DRAMA:  GREEK DRAMA FOR SEVERAL CENTURIES BEGINNING AROUND 530 B.C., PLAYWRIGHTS COMPETED IN CONNECTION WITH RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS RELATING TO DIONYSUS, GOD OF WINE & FERTILITY. GREEK DRAMA (cont.):  GREEK DRAMA (cont.) PLAYS PERFORMED IN LARGE OUT-DOOR AMPHITHEATERS. ACTORS WORE MASKS SYMBOLIZING THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. GREEK DRAMA (cont.):  GREEK DRAMA (cont.) CHORUS: REPRESENTED THE VOICE OF THE COMMUNITY; DANCED & SANG IN THE ORCHESTRA (ROUND AREA AT FOOT OF AMPHITHEATER). GREEK DRAMA (cont.):  GREEK DRAMA (cont.) ODE: SCENE-ENDING SONGS & DANCES BY CHORUS THAT COMMENT ON THE ACTION OF THE PLAY AND SOMETIMES PROVIDE CLARIFYING INFORMATION. GREEK DRAMA (cont.):  GREEK DRAMA (cont.) DEUS EX MACHINA (“GOD FROM THE MACHINE”): AN ELABORATE MECHANISM FOR LOWERING ACTORS PLAYING THE ROLES OF GODS ONTO THE STAGE. GREEK DRAMA (cont.):  GREEK DRAMA (cont.) PLAYS TEND TO BE SHORT, CAN BE PERFORMED IN ABOUT 1-1/2 HOURS. GREEK DRAMA (cont.):  GREEK DRAMA (cont.) SOPHOCLES: THEATRICAL INNOVA-TOR & MOST IMPORTANT GREEK PLAYWRIGHT; AUTHOR OF OEDIPUS THE KING, CONSIDERED BY MANY THE MOST INFLUENTIAL DRAMA EVER WRITTEN. ELIZABETHAN DRAMA:  ELIZABETHAN DRAMA EXEMPLIFIED BY THE TRAGEDIES, COMEDIES, AND HISTORIES OF SHAKESPEARE. PLAYS DEAL LARGE-LY W/ THE ACTIONS, INTRIGUES, & ROMANCES OF KINGS, QUEENS, AND OTHER HIGHBORN CHARACTERS. ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.):  ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.) AS IN GREEK DRAMA, NO WOMEN WERE ALLOWED ON THE STAGE. PLAYS OFTEN BLENDED ACTION, HUMOR, & VIOLENCE W/ POETRY & PHILOSOPHICAL INSIGHTS. ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.):  ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.) EARLY PLAYS WERE PERFORMED IN INNYARDS & OPEN SPACES BETWEEN BUILDINGS. ELIZABETHAN THEATERS:  ELIZABETHAN THEATERS THEATERS WERE CIRCULAR & ONLY PARTLY ROOFED, WITH AUDIENCE ON SIDES AS WELL AS IN FRONT OF RAISED STAGE. ELIZABETHAN THEATERS (cont.):  ELIZABETHAN THEATERS (cont.) HELD UP TO 2500 PEOPLE IN AN INTI-MATE SETTING, INCLUDING 500-800 GROUNDLINGS (COMMONERS WHO STOOD IN THE “PIT” AT THE FOOT OF THE STAGE). ELIZABETHAN THEATERS (cont.):  ELIZABETHAN THEATERS (cont.) LITTLE SCENERY OR STAGE SETTING. THERE WAS A SECOND-LEVEL BALCONY, DOORS AT THE BACK FOR ENTRANCES & EXITS, A CURTAINED ALCOVE, AND A TRAP DOOR IN STAGE FLOOR FOR ENTRANCES OF SPIRITS. ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.):  ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.) IN SPITE OF LIMITED PROPS & SET-TINGS, COSTUMES & SOUND EFFECTS WERE QUITE ELABORATE. ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.):  ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.) ASIDE: A SPEECH DIRECTED ONLY TO THE AUDIENCE. MAKES AUDIENCE PRIVY TO CHARACTER’S THOUGHTS & ALLOWS THEM TO PERCEIVE IRONIES & INTRIGUES UNKNOWN TO OTHER CHARACTERS. ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.):  ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.) SOLILOQUY: SPEECH DELIVERED BY LONE ACTOR ON STAGE (E.G., HAMLET’S “TO BE OR NOT TO BE” SPEECH), PURPOSE OF WHICH IS ALSO TO REVEAL CHARACTER’S STATE OF MIND. MODERN DRAMA:  MODERN DRAMA MELODRAMA (ESPECIALLY IN U.S. & ENGLAND IN 19TH CENTURY): LOVE STORIES & ACTION-PACKED PLOTS W/ HAPPY ENDINGS & STEREOTYPED CHAR-ACTERS REPRESENTING EXTREMES OF GOOD & EVIL. MODERN DRAMA (cont.):  MODERN DRAMA (cont.) REALISM (LATE 19TH-20TH CENTURY): PRESENTS THE CRISES AND CON-FLICTS OF ORDINARY PEOPLE’S EVERYDAY LIVES (WORK, FAMILY, RELATIONSHIPS, ETC.). REALISM (cont.):  REALISM (cont.) PICTURE-FRAME STAGE REPRODUC-ES A SETTING IN REALISTIC DETAIL. SCENERY & PROPS ARE IMPORTANT. REALISM (cont.):  REALISM (cont.) ACTORS ADDRESS EACH OTHER RATHER THAN MAKING FORMAL SPEECHES TO AUDIENCE AND ACT W/IN THE SETTING, NOT JUST IN FRONT OF IT. TYPES OF DRAMA:  TYPES OF DRAMA TRAGEDY: FOCUSES ON LIFE’S SOR-ROWS & DIFFICULTIES. TRADITION-ALLY TREATS THE LIFE OF A ROYAL FIGURE WHOSE FORTUNES GO FROM GOOD TO BAD. TRAGEDY (cont.):  TRAGEDY (cont.) TRAGIC HERO IS A GREAT MAN OR WOMAN WHO MEETS DOWNFALL B/C OF AN INNER TRAGIC FLAW (E.G., EXCESSIVE PRIDE OR AMBITION), A MISTAKE IN JUDGMENT, OR CIRCUM-STANCES BEYOND THEIR CONTROL. TRAGIC HERO (cont.):  TRAGIC HERO (cont.) TRAGIC HERO MEETS FATE W/ DIG-NITY AND ACCEPTS RESPONSIBILITY FOR IT, THUS AFFIRMING (RATHER THAN NEGATING) HUMAN VALUES. TRAGEDY (cont.):  TRAGEDY (cont.) ARISTOTLE’S POETICS—WATCHING THE HERO’S DOWNFALL (THE CATASTROPHE) AND SEEING THE DRAMA’S RESOLUTION (RESTORA-TION OF ORDER), . . . ARISTOTLE’S POETICS (cont.):  ARISTOTLE’S POETICS (cont.) . . . AUDIENCE EXPERIENCES A CATHARSIS—RELIEF FROM TENSIONS OF PLAY (A PURGING OF “PITY AND FEAR”) AND A SENSE OF HAVING GAINED INSIGHT, ENLIGHTENMENT. TRAGEDY (cont.):  TRAGEDY (cont.) MODERN TRAGEDIES DO NOT AL-WAYS FOLLOW THE CONVENTIONS OF TRADITIONAL TRAGEDY. SOME CRITICS ARGUE THAT THEY ARE NOT TRAGEDIES, THEIR MAIN CHARAC-TERS NOT TRAGIC HEROES. COMEDY:  COMEDY FOCUSES ON LIFE’S JOYS & HUMOR-OUS ABSURDITIES. USUALLY TREATS THE LIVES OF ORDINARY PEOPLE ENCOUNTERING DIFFICULTIES & CHALLENGES. COMEDY (cont.):  COMEDY (cont.) PROBLEMS ARE EITHER NOT DEEPLY SERIOUS OR ARE TREATED IN LIGHT-HEARTED MANNER. COMEDY (cont.):  COMEDY (cont.) TENDS TO MOVE TOWARD IMPROVE-MENT OF CHARACTERS’ FORTUNES, TOWARD RECONCILIATION, OFTEN THROUGH MARRIAGE. SATIRIC COMEDY:  SATIRIC COMEDY EXPOSES THE SHORTCOMINGS OF HUMANITY, INCLUDING OUR OWN FOOLISHNESS. MAY BE LIGHT & WITTY, BUT IS OFTEN DARK & BITING. ROMANTIC COMEDY:  ROMANTIC COMEDY COMEDY OF MISTAKEN IDENTITY, UNEXPECTED DISCOVERIES, & PHYSICAL ACTION. DOES NOT SCOLD OR TEACH A LESSON, BUT SEEKS SIMPLY TO ENTERTAIN. TRAGICOMEDY:  TRAGICOMEDY A COMMON TYPE OF MODERN DRAMA, W/ COMEDY & TRAGEDY MIXED, AND ONE OR THE OTHER DOMINATING.

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