Dr. Ted Funk - Solid Solutions For Your Pit

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Information about Dr. Ted Funk - Solid Solutions For Your Pit
Business & Mgmt

Published on March 7, 2014

Author: trufflemedia

Source: slideshare.net

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Solid Solutions For Your Pit - Dr. Ted Funk, Ted Funk Consulting, from the 2014 Missouri Pork Expo , February 11 - 12, 2014, Columbia, MO, USA.

More presentations at http://www.swinecast.com/2014-missouri-pork-expo

Solid Solutions for Your Pit Sponsored by Elanco Animal Health Ted Funk, PhD, PE Funktioneering.com

Introduction  What’s a “deep” pit and why should I care?  What could possibly go wrong?  How can I make my pits work better?  How can I maintain biosecurity for my buildings with pits?  How can I maximize the fertilizer benefits from my pits?  Some new pit construction booboos

A “deep pit” is:  A container for a liquid that must be regarded as a potential pollutant  A reservoir that allows for timely placement of nutrients on cropland  A conservation component that preserves the quality and quantity of manure nutrients for use by crops  A structure that acts as a foundation for building floors and walls  A component of a building’s ventilation system

“Timely” placement? Who’s asking?

Conserving nutrients…?

Foundation for…what? Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Slats showing their age? Not like diamonds…they don’t last forever. Slat end cracks Flaking or spalling Slat Cracks exposing reinforcing steel Beam Beam ledge failure

Pit ventilation?—I’ll get back to you on that…

The bigger the reservoir, the bigger the problem, if…. Sure, this is a dairy, but the issues apply to us all.

Priorities in pit management Safety & indoor air quality • Protect animals and workers from toxic gases, maintain good atmosphere in building Environmental protection • Inspect pits, monitor levels, manage capacity Best use of nutrients • 4 R’s of nutrient management: Right type, right amount, right time, right placement

Safety issues  Good ventilation of deep pits  Agitation and gas emissions  Foaming pits

Pit ventilation: How good is it?  Practical limits to fan “reach”—15 feet?  Structure limits on fan placement  Ventilation stages may limit number of fans running  Variable speed fans are REALLY variable…and unpredictable  Underfloor ducts—impractical? …bottom line: pit ventilation is not really that efficient. Put in plenty.

Pit ventilation—the critical times Low contribution to whole vent rate • Small pigs, cold weather Manure level high, close to floor • Near time to pump out pit Very high concentrations of toxic and/or combustible gases • Pit agitation prior to, during pumping • Also possible when there is deep foam present

Death by pit gas: We study and study, but still lose animals every year…. Zhao et al., 2005. Ventilating Confined Manure Storages: Progress Report, ASABE Paper No. 055019.

Agitation and Pumping     Keep people out of building Ignition sources off Gas supply turned off Ventilate properly          Fans on 20-30 cfm/pig Curtains closed if wind not blowing Ceiling inlets open Pumpouts sealed Mixing fans if available No agitation . . . if possible No agitation until manure is 2’ below slats If possible, agitate intermittently No rooster tailing

Foaming pits—an old problem, and a whole ‘nuther topic

Foam contains biogas. Go ahead—try this at home!

…so where’s your pit ventilation now?

Tough luck, poor planning, whatever…. The pit’s full, and it’s August. What’s your plan?

Biosecurity measures  Well, we thought we were pretty good at biosecurity. Then PEDV….

Biosecurity—general information  Biosecurity Guide for Pork Producers  National Pork Board website

Details: Manure pit pumpout port. Management during manure removal? Sealed lid, liquid trap panel at wall

Manure samples info  Best sampling done during land application  Stratification of solids, nutrients: why not sample the pit without agitating it? top middle bottom Phosphorus as P2O5, lb/1000 gal 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0

Pit level monitoring and management  Water management—see NPB study “Water Consumption and Conservation Techniques Currently Available for Swine Production”, NPB #09-128  80% of the water used in a building is drinking water, so–  Use good drinkers  Stop the leaks  Save big $$ on manure spreading costs

Pit level monitoring and management  Electronic liquid level—what are you using?  Mechanical liquid level  Weekly level monitoring required by regulation (US EPA)—how are you doing that?  Water meters and what they can do for you

Recordkeeping  Water metering—not just for noting leaks  Decreased intake: Onset of disease in the building?  Insufficient intake with large pigs, hot weather: Indications of plumbing restrictions? Photo: www.edcheung.com

Why ASSUME you have room in the pit?  Check water meters daily and log the readings  Measure manure depth in pit weekly, and record  AFTER pumpdown, check for solids & unrecoverable liquids remaining

Tools for updating and managing your NMP  Smart phone apps?  UMO nutrient management software and MMP extensions

Manure nutrient economics: Valuing liquid manure  Fertilizer component replacement?  Target field fertility requirements—don’t count $$ for something that is not needed  Use realistic haul & apply cost credits  http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G9330

Pit additives? Claims: Reduce manure odor Reduce manure toxic gases Manage solids and crust Retain nutrients and make more plant available Show me.

New construction  What can go wrong with pouring a pit?  Construction—see Illinois Dept of Ag examples  Perimeter tiles  Wall penetrations  Water stops

Concrete mix and placement quality control—choose your contractor carefully Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Honeycombing Prevent by vibrating or rodding during placement Use proper mix Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Waterstop “Blowout” Exposed Waterstop Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Improper installation:Expandable waterstops placed in standing water Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Pouring in the rain – Standing Water. They’ll probably get to do this one over. Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Debris in a poured wall—Guess who gets to dig this one out! 2x4 Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Cold Weather / Snow Plan for conditions Proper Mix Protect Pour Blankets Leave Forms Speed up the curing process Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Floor Caps—If at first you don’t succeed…. Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Perimeter Drainage Tubing— required in some situations Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Perimeter Drainage Tubing Sampling port Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Floor cracked by heavy equipment. “Secure” liquid container? Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Penetration by water pipe. Don’t look now, but that grout is going to disappear, and then…so is the manure! Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

Proper Backfill—one of the required details, sign of a good contractor Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture

But enough about construction. Back to managing what you have:

Summary—your priorities for deep pit management Safety & indoor air quality • Protect animals and workers from toxic gases, maintain good atmosphere in building Environmental protection • Inspect pits, monitor levels, manage capacity Best use of nutrients • 4 R’s of nutrient management: Right type, right amount, right time, right placement

Last words  Be safe  Track freeboard  Have a contingency plan for land application  Take credit for nutrients Sponsored by Elanco Animal Health

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