Published on March 7, 2014
The Dreaded Ps of Pork Production—PRRS and PEDV Pete Lasley DVM, MS Murphy-Brown of Missouri LLC
Outline • PRRS & PEDV – – – – – – – – Distribution Virus characteristics Clinical signs Testing Spread Stability Control and Elimination Prevention (Biosecurity) • Biosecurity
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
PRRS • • • • • • • • Distribution Virus characteristics Clinical signs Testing Spread Stability Control and Elimination Prevention (Biosecurity)
PRRS---Characteristics •Enveloped RNA-Virus of the family Arteriviridae •Long term viremia (~ 3 weeks) •Persistent infections (up to 157 days) •Differences in virulence •High infectivity (<10 infectious particles) but slow transmission •Short duration of immunity due to viral mutations •Protection from one strain does not necessarily protect against another
PRRS---Characteristics • Short colostral protection of piglets • Replicates or Multiplies in the pig‘s lungs • • porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) Very sensitive virus outside of host • Fragile to outside conditions
PRRS---Characteristics •Replicates in immune cells of the Lungs –porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM`s) •Defence mechanism of the lung is impaired •Weakens nonspecific immunity –Facilitates replication of PRRS virus =>Increases risk of secondary infections
Clinical signs in breeding herd • • • • • Late term abortions Stillborn, mummies and weak born piglets Prewean mortality Sow deaths Decreased farrowing rate – Pregnancy loss – Failure to conceive
Clinical signs in growing pigs • Respiratory – Thumping in severe cases – Lack of cough in uncomplicated PRRS • • • • Mortality Reduced ADG Poorer feed conversion Increased culls and reduced full value pigs sold
PRRS Testing • Test for Virus – PCR – Immunohistochemistry • Stains that show virus in tissue at a microscopic level • Test for previous infection (exposure) – Blood testing – Oral Fluid • ELISA, IFA
Spread • Routes of infection – Animal contact • New introductions to Herd – Fomites • Objects carrying the virus – Clothes, boots, tools, equipment – Semen – Airborne
Stability Relatively unstable virus PEDV TGEV PRRS 98-100o F 3-24 hours High temp 6-20 minutes (132o F) Disinfection • Susceptible to our standard disinfectants – Reduce number not sterilize • Combination – Clean, Disinfect, Downtime/Bake – Biosecurity
Control and Elimination • Depopulation and Repopulation – Remove all animals from herd and repopulate with clean animals • • • • Closures Wait and See approach Stimulate immunity Tools – Homogenize immunity • All animals exposed to the same virus – Close the herd 210-240 days – Vaccination • Imperfect immunity
Prevention • Biosecurity • Biosecurity • Biosecurity
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV)
Distribution Global Perspective • • • • • • 1971—Epidemic diarrhea in finishing pigs in England 1976—Epidemic diarrhea in all age pigs in U.K. By 1979—Many European countries had Epidemic diarrhea During 1980’s-1990’s Virus found in Japan, Korea, & China During 2000’s PEDV moves in other Asian countries 2010-2012—China reports severe cases of PEDV countrywide • May 16, 2013—NVSL confirms PEDV in USA (99.4% identical to Chinese strains). Borrowed from Marlin and Pete Thomas Grower update
Lab Submissions (PEDV positive) Blue=weekly Red = cumulative 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 7-14-13 AASV-National Pork Board Labs included; ISU ODAADDL,SDSU, & UMN 378
NPB industry meeting in Des Moines on 8.2.13: Estimates of 250,000 sows affected Loss of 1,000,000 market pigs.
How long has it been here? • ISU fecal samples review – Dec 2012 to April 29th 2013 (index case) – Tested for PEDV – Found only one positive on 4.16.13 in OH • NOT circulating in growing pigs long before sow farms.
Virus Characteristics • What is it? – Corona Virus – Other coronas • TGE (Transmissible Gastroenteritis) • Porcine Respiratory Corona • Bovine Coronas • Other species • Incubation 12-72 hours – Recent introduction – Easier tracking?
Virus Characteristics • Route of Infection – Fecal oral route • Not Zoonotic – Doesn’t affect people – Not a food safety concern
Virus Characteristics • Import/Export Issues – Not an OIE reportable disease (World Organization of Animal Health) – Not considered a Foreign animal Disease by USDA Reportable Disease
Virus Characteristics • High Replication = High shedding – 108 to 109 / gram of feces • Scenario – Disinfectants ~99.99% effective – ~100 viral particles = disease 108 (100 M) x 0.0001 = 10,000 particles = 100 times infectious dose
Industry Images (not our sow farms) Clinical Signs • What are the Clinical Signs? – Diarrhea • Dirty pigs – Vomiting – Dehydration – Death Severity of disease dependent on age
Sows • Gestation barn – 24-48 hrs post infection • • • • off feed vomiting scouring abortions • Breeding Barn – 24-48 hrs post infection • off feed • vomiting • scouring l
Percent Survivability to Day 7 120% 95% 100% 25% 0% 0% Week 1 0% Week 6 Feedback initiated 40% 20% Week 5 70% 80% 60% 100% Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 • Continued Mortality 7 + days • May not wean any pigs for 3-5 weeks
Nursery-Finish Nursery • High percentage of pigs effected • Mortality is low compared to Farrowing – Can be 1-3% Finishing • Can be missed – Transient – ADG and F:G impact not clear • May be more severe and ongoing if other challenges present – PRRS, PCV2, SIV
Clinical signs and impact • This disease LOOKS much like TGEV • Almost all pigs are affected and have diarrhea TGEV PEDV Rota virus Ileitis Age affected All All 0-6 weeks 12+ weeks Number affected Nearly All Nearly All Variable (5-15%) Variable (5-15%) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Less No Yes Yes No No Clinical Signs Diarrhea Watery Vomiting
Necropsy -PEDV pigs (3-4 wk old) • Samples to submit – Small Intestines • 4-6 areas that appear affected – Fresh and fixed tissue – Fecal samples from affected animals Intestines appeared darker at first glance. Gas-filled and thin-walled. Enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes.
Testing • PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) – Testing of Genetic material – Genetic fingerprint • Histology – Identification of microscopic lesions • Serology – Testing for immune response
Disease Spread • Trailer and Plant study – Samples • 669 trailers at 6 plants – Pre and post unloading – Results • Positives – 17% Pre (Range 2-70%) – 27% Post – contamination at entry = at Exit – Contamination can multiply through packing plants and transfer stations • If cycle is unbroken (clean and disinfection)
Stability PEDV TGEV PRRS 98-100o F 7 days 1 hour 3-24 hours High temp 30 minutes (140o F) 6-20 minutes (132o F) Disinfection • Susceptible to our standard disinfectants – Reduce number not sterilize • Combination – Clean, Disinfect, Downtime/Bake – Biosecurity
Control and Elimination • Vaccines – No proven effective • Some available in other countries • Work currently being done • Medications – None effective against PEDV • May be helpful if secondary bacterial • Other control methods – – – – Whole herd feedback BIOSECURITY! BIOSECURITY! BIOSECURITY!
Control and Elimination • Feedback and closure for 90-150 days – Dependent on Gilt supply • 90 days have been effective in Asia (Geiger). – Multiple feedback efforts • Visually inspect and mark that every sow were infected – Vomiting – Diarrhea – Off-feed • Be sure to re-dose anything questionable or no signs. • Concentration of feedback varies depending who you ask.
Control and Elimination • Why Feedback? • Why increase Disease? – Immune Management of herd – Build Colostrum/Milk immunity • Wean more pigs faster – Prevent prolong continual disease in herd
Need to Know Notes • Not a food safety/ public health concern • Very Infectious/ Hardy virus • Very Damaging to: – Pigs pre-weaning – Productivity of Sow farm • Biosecurity is Key
Biosecurity • What is it? – Series of Processes and Procedures to prevent or minimize the risk of Disease. – Internal • Barriers in place within a farm or site to prevent the spread of Disease from one group to another – External • Minimize or prevent the entry of disease from the outside • How we interact with the outside world
Biosecurity • Why? – Cost of Disease • • • • • • Mortality Loss of Productivity Increased Labor Increased medication Increased vaccination Personal and worker morale – True value of Investment can be difficult to quantify
Why do we need to stop diseases from moving? Swine diseases today affect the well-being of our pigs and the success of our pigs and business. 1. Swine diseases affect the well-being and welfare of our animals • Don’t feel well, don’t eat/drink 2. Diseases lead to a loss in animal productivity • Higher mortality • Poorer growth and feed conversion 3. Swine diseases lead to more work and medication • Pulling and treating animals • Antibiotic use increases 4. Swine disease can affect food safety and quality • More carcass contamination from animals with chronic lung lesions
• PRRS and PEDV Cost • It is estimated that PRRS cost the Swine industry between $560,000,000 and $660,000,000 dollars per year – 5.7 M sows (2011 USDA) – PRRS and PEDV • Estimates Range from $150-225 per infected sow • 5,000 head sow unit can be up to 1 Million dollars • Cost of Biosecurity • “But I don’t have time” • “Biosecurity is too expensive” • How much effort/ expense/time is it worth to regain 10-30% of what disease costs us?
Cost PRRS PEDV Cases Innumerable 2200+ since 4-15-13 Estimated cost/ sow ~$200 $165-225 ($114 for every sow in US herd 42% of sow herd positive) Annual losses to U.S. Pork industry Dealing with disease $560,000,000 to $660,000,000 Yet to be Determined Control spread through Biosecurity Herd closures involving feedback Vaccination??
Biosecurity Where are you vulnerable? • • • • • • • • • • Animal Movements Supplies Semen People movements Equipment and tools Feed Pests (rodents, birds, insects) Mortality management Land application Maintenance
Biosecurity Where are you vulnerable? Animal Movements – Weaned pig trailers – Cull shipments – Replacement animals • Status • Testing • Questions – What routes are being taken? – Are trailers clean? – How do we interact with the driver? • Where has he/she been?
Biosecurity Where are you vulnerable? • Supplies – Where are we getting them from? – Do we know that they have a no return policy? – Am I interacting with others in the process? • Is that a risk? – Do we enter supplies directly? – Do we clean or unpack supplies at entry? • Semen – – – – – – – Do I know the boar stud procedures? How long since last PRRS or PED break at stud? What are their testing procedures? Who is delivering my semen? Who do they visit before me? How do they interact with my farm? How do I enter the semen?
Biosecurity Where are you vulnerable? People movements • Internally – How does breeding interact with farrowing? – If finishing how do I move from barn to barn? • Externally – Do people go outside to check feed, pumps, drains, bait, remove dead, garbage? • What are the procedures to do that? Equipment and tools • What comes in and out of my farm? – Is that necessary relative to the risk? – How could I avoid that? – Do I do repairs between groups, or during?
Biosecurity Where are you vulnerable? • Feed • Pests (rodents, birds, insects) – How frequently do I see mice, rats, bird, roaches, in my farm? – Do I have a good baiting program? • Are weeds controlled around my farm? – Is Bird netting in place and in good repair? • Mortality management – How do I remove dead? – Do I compost, render, or incinerate? • How do I interact with rendering boxes? – Cross trafficking?
Biosecurity Where are you vulnerable? • Land application – – – – Neighbors? Who is applying? Where have they been previously? Were they clean coming in? • Maintenance – – – – Who? When? Where have they been? How do they enter equipment?
Biosecurity • An Investment in: • Health • Productivity • Financial wellbeing of operation • Well worth a specific visit with your veterinarian
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