Dr John Mabry

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Published on February 7, 2008

Author: Dario

Source: authorstream.com

Non-Productive Sow Days: The Selection Components:  Non-Productive Sow Days: The Selection Components Dr. John Mabry Thanathip Suwanasopee Iowa Pork Industry Center Iowa State University What Is a Non-Productive Sow Day?:  What Is a Non-Productive Sow Day? Any time a female is in the breeding herd and is not pregnant or nursing a litter Why Is This Important ?:  Why Is This Important ? Every day a sow is in the breeding herd she incurs feed costs, fixed costs, interest costs and opportunity costs If she is not producing a litter, she is not paying for herself Reducing NPSD can lower the cost of production Does it have a genetic base ? Economic Value of 1 NPSD:  Economic Value of 1 NPSD Feed cost = $ 0.35 Interest on buildings cost = $ 0.22 Labor costs = $ 0.26 Opportunity costs = $ 0.66 Facility costs = $ ????? ----------------------------------- Approximately $ 1.50–2.00/sow/day Components of NPSD:  Components of NPSD Entry to first service interval Farrowing rate Wean to service interval Culling decision to removal interval Which of these has the best potential for improvement through selection Entry to First Service Interval:  Entry to First Service Interval Gilts are entered into a ‘gilt pool’ when they are approximately 7-8 months of age, weigh 250+ pounds and have just started cycling The specific farm procedure is a management decision Gilts that have an earlier puberty will cycle quicker and be bred quicker, thus a shorter entry to first service interval How to Improve Genetically ?:  How to Improve Genetically ? Earlier puberty will decrease entry to first service interval h2 = 0.15 – 0.25 But it is rarely measured in seedstock programs Genetic correlation to growth rate is moderately desirable (indirect selection) Can’t select for at the farm level Farrowing Rate:  Farrowing Rate Sow is mated to a boar (AI usually, some natural service) by a farm worker In order to farrow: Sow must be bred at the proper point of estrus cycle Insemination technique is important Semen must be fertile Sow must be fertile Sow must be managed correctly to maintain pregnancy How to Improve Genetically ?:  How to Improve Genetically ? Genetic ability of the sow to farrow is highly confounded Semen quality of boar she is mated to Ability of the inseminator Timing of insemination Technique of insemination Difficult to cleanly select for at the farm level Wean to Service Interval:  Wean to Service Interval Sow must express visible estrus Influenced by lactation length, sow condition, parity h2 estimated at 0.12 – 0.36 Very little work in this area Could be selected for at the farm level Culling to Removal Interval:  Culling to Removal Interval Decision to cull a sow is usually made: During lactation when she has poor performance After weaning when she fails to cycle After breeding when she recycles The time from deciding to cull a sow until she is removed from the herd is a management decision based on sow marketing strategy Farrowing Interval:  Farrowing Interval Interval from one farrowing to the next Lactation length + wean to service interval + gestation length Lactation length is a management decision Wean to estrus is heritable Gestation length has little variation, is not selected upon very often Requires two farrowings, farrowing rate is very confounded with other effects Genetic Improvement in NPSD:  Genetic Improvement in NPSD Wean to estrus interval seems to offer the most potential for inclusion in a genetic improvement program Farrowing interval is also a potential trait for genetic improvement However, there are some challenges to doing this…. Distribution of Wean to Service:  Distribution of Wean to Service Days Percent Distribution of # Litters/Sow:  Distribution of # Litters/Sow Pecent Reproductive Traits Heritabilities:  Reproductive Traits Heritabilities Reducing NPSD:  Reducing NPSD Management Gilt development program to enhance cycling Estrous detection program to quickly and accurately find cycling females High quality AI program with fertile boars and trained inseminators Sow feeding program to enhance feed intake and lower wean to estrus interval Reducing NPSD - Genetics:  Reducing NPSD - Genetics If possible, find a seedstock source that includes wean to estrous interval (W2E) in their genetic improvement program Include wean to estrous interval (W2E) in your selection program at the GGP and GP farms BLUP sow indexing program for overall genetic improvement in reproduction BLUP Sow Indexing:  BLUP Sow Indexing Primary reproductive traits are number born alive, litter weaning weight and wean to estrous interval These traits are lowly heritable Therefore, BLUP genetic evaluation system is needed to make genetic progress Advantages of BLUP System:  Advantages of BLUP System Defines performance as the sows contemporary group deviation (CG) Sow contemporary group is a group of sows that were bred together, housed together and farrowed together CG deviation allows performance to be expressed without those environmental effects Increases accuracy of BV estimation Advantages of BLUP System:  Advantages of BLUP System Combines the performance information on a sow with all her relatives data Example: sow BV based on 4 of her litter records plus litter records from her daughters, half sisters, cousins, etc. This greatly increases the accuracy of the BV estimation Proven to produce the fastest genetic gains BLUP Sow Indexing:  BLUP Sow Indexing What does it do? Estimates the breeding value of animals for litter size, litter weight and wean to estrous interval Creates an SPI from the BV estimates for use in selection Estimates this BV with the most accuracy Demo BLUP System:  Demo BLUP System BLUP Sow Indexing:  BLUP Sow Indexing How are these BV estimates used? As an aid to select the genetically superior pigs Where is this selection done? At weaning, decide which sows to bred for maternal matings which to breed for market hogs and which to cull Evaluation of current herd sires and potential herd sires BLUP Sow Indexing:  BLUP Sow Indexing How does this improve profitability? Uses selection to make permanent genetic improvement in the herd for litter size, litter weaning weight and wean to estrous interval component of non-productive sow days Why is BLUP Indexing Better Than What is Normally Done:  Why is BLUP Indexing Better Than What is Normally Done Best system to make permanent improvement in non-productive sow days Works with any data management system that can extract data Simple operational procedure Adds to genetic gain from genetic source Genetic Progress Example:  Genetic Progress Example Genetic Progress Example:  Genetic Progress Example Who Should Use BLUP Indexing:  Who Should Use BLUP Indexing Seedstock suppliers Gilt multiplication units Anyone making replacement breeding stock Requirements to Do BLUP Indexing:  Requirements to Do BLUP Indexing PigChamp, PigWin or equivalent data management system Computer with math co-processor (486DX or higher CPU) Pedigree information entered on the sows (her sire and dam) adds to the accuracy Summary:  Summary Non-Productive Sow Days are economically important We need to lower costs wherever possible Genetic control of NBA and W2E are low, but does exist Wean to service interval is easy to measure Summary:  Summary To improve lowly heritable traits, BLUP technology is required BLUP selection can be used at the farm if you use a computerized data management system Genetic trends were desirable for all traits after BLUP selection started

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