Dr. David Baumert - In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process

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Published on March 14, 2014

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In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process - Dr. David Baumert, Cargill Pork, from the Boehringer Ingelheim Pre-AASV Conference, February 28, 2014 - Dallas, TX

More presentations at http://www.swinecast.com/2014-boehringer-ingelheim-aasv

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. 1 In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process Dr. David Baumert February 28, 2014 Dallas, Texas

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Veterinarian’s Oath • Being admitted to the profession of veterinary medicine, I solemnly swear to use my scientific knowledge and skills for the benefit of society through – the protection of animal health and welfare, – the prevention and relief of animal suffering, – the conservation of animal resources, – the promotion of public health and – the advancement of medical knowledge. • I will practice my profession conscientiously, with dignity and in keeping with the principles of veterinary medical ethics. • I accept as a lifelong obligation the continual improvement of my professional knowledge and competence. 2

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Questions and thought process • What is the Infection Chain™ of PCV2 in our herds? – Clinically, subclinically – What are our expectations of PCV2 control? • How does vertical transmission of PCV2 impact our growing pigs? – Does it matter? – What tools do we have to determine status? • How do we intervene to make an impact on PCV2? – How do we measure impact? – Is the intervention successful? – What is the ROI? 3

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Evidence-based decision making 4 Domains that influence evidence-based decision making. Source: Satterfield JM et al.

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Example of Cargill Pork flow to put discussion into perspective 5 12 Stand-alone Gilt grower sites; rotational, all-in/all-out fill Gilt Developer/Breeder continous flow, multi-source 16 Stand-alone, 700-head sow farms 20,000 head, 6-farm, sow system Commercial nursery system (multi-sourced) Commercial nursery system (multi-sourced) Commercial finisher system (multi-sourced) Commercial finisher system (multi-sourced) INTERNALNUCLEUS / MULTIPLICATION

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Our PCV2 Infection Chain™ 6

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Sampling for Sow Herd Stability • Pigs/Fetuses – Fetal Hearts – Pre-suckle Serum – PUCS – Placental Umbilical Cord Serum • Sows – Oral fluid – Serum • Environment – Swabbing 7

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Placental umbilical cord blood (PUCS) Photos courtesy of Tom Fangman, Tyler Te Grotenhuis

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Progression of PUCS sampling 9 Validation of PUCS Intra-herd variation Validation of PUCS Intra-herd variation Inter-herd variation Sampling protocol

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. PUCS – Placental umbilical cord serum Baumert, Leman 2013 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Sow Serum Litters ≥ 1 pig pos. PUCS Enviro. Cloth PercentPositive,% Site A Site B 53 PCV2 positive pre-suckle pigs out of 168 pigs tested (31.5% positive) 17 PCV2 placenta positives out of 21 litters tested (81% positive) Average of 32.1% pigs PCV2 positive/litter (Range 0% to 100% positive/litter)

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Progression of PUCS sampling 11 Validation of PUCS Intra-herd variation Validation of PUCS Intra-herd variation Inter-herd variation Sampling protocol Inter-herd variation Sampling protocol Impact on Performance Risk Factors

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. How many sampling periods are needed? One-way ANOVA Analysis of Variance P<0.001 The variance in the level of viremia in positive PUCS samples over time is significantly different 30 day 30 day Farm A

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Percent positive PUCS samples per three 30 day time periods per 6 farms 13 0 20 40 60 80 100 A B C D E F Percentpositive,% Farm ID Period 1 Period 2 Period 3

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. 88% 90% 92% 94% 96% 98% 100% A B C D E F Live born percent Conception Rate, % Performance of the herd populations tested 14 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% 160% 180% A B C D E F Still born, % from mean Mummies, % from mean • Conception rates were similar between sites • B, C and D farms had lower Live Born (as a percentage of total born) than A, E, F • B, C, D were 3 highest stillborn and mummies Stillborn and mummies, percent deviation from group mean, % Live born and conception rate percent, % * Live born percent = live born mean / total born mean

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Can we make an impact on stability? • Options for making an impact – Biosecurity • Internal biosecurity – McRebel™ – Herd Closure – Gilt Acclimation – Vaccination 15

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 PercentPositivePUCSsamples,% Month Sampled Farm B Farm C Farm D Farm E Interventions and the impact 16 Closed the herd Mass vaccination Mass vaccination Control herd no action taken

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Where does instability of the sow herd start 17

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Gilt development and PCV2 – first look • Initial finding into GDU supplying PCV2 unstable sow herd – Negative (by serum PCR) gilts are entering the GDU • Hypothesis: negative or naïve gilts entering the sow herd may be amplifying PCV2 instability in the sow herd • Incomplete evidence: herd closure in 1 herd coincided with herd stabilization 18 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Farm B

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Summary – findings and observations • PCVAD is not a big concern in PCV2 vaccinated pigs in our system – Vaccination works • Vertical transmission occurs in all herds tested – Levels vary • PUCS sampling is a good sample to test for sow herd stability – More positives found than with sow serum • PCV2 was widely present in the environment • A minimum of 3 sampling periods are necessary – More might be needed…further evaluation is needed 19

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Summary – findings and observations (cont) • In 3 herds that had highest measured PUCS positive samples: – Similar conception rates – Fewer live born percentage, higher mummies and stillborns • Interventions (herd closure and mass vaccination with CircoFLEX® coincided with detection of stabilization – Repeatability needs to be tested • Gilt (in gilt development) surveillance and projects are ongoing 20

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Summary - beliefs • Current PCV2 vaccines protect pigs through marketing – We are only trying to tweak, and optimize PCV2 control • The Infection Chain™ and vertical transmission with PCV2 is real • Additional work is required to determine the production and economic impact, if any, of PCV2 presence at birth • The risk factors for PCV2 sow herd stability/instability are unclear to date • We will continue to work on PCV2 at the gilt, sow and pig levels 21

In-Field Research & PCV2 Sow Herd Stability: Our Process © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2012. All rights reserved. Progression of PUCS sampling 22 Validation of PUCS Intra-herd variation Validation of PUCS Intra-herd variation Inter-herd variation Inter-herd variation Sampling protocol Impact on Performance Risk Factors Risk Factor Analysis Research herd inclusion criteria

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