dottor porcedduPart1 TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY MODES

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Travel-Nature

Published on March 14, 2008

Author: Wen12

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First Level Master’s Degree Logistics Networks in an Enlarging Europe Sustainable Transport, Geographic Information, Logistics and Economic Integration in Central and South-Eastern Europe Module Economic Geography and GIS:  First Level Master’s Degree Logistics Networks in an Enlarging Europe Sustainable Transport, Geographic Information, Logistics and Economic Integration in Central and South-Eastern Europe Module Economic Geography and GIS A.Y. 2005/2006 Dott. Andrea Porceddu Department of Geographical and Historical Sciences Faculty of Economics - University of Trieste Email. andrea.porceddu@econ.units.it Tel. +39 040 558 7008 Slide2:  Introduction to Transport Geography Transport Geography:  Transport Geography DEFINITION Sub-discipline of geography It deals with movements of freight, people and information. It seeks to link spatial constraints and attributes with the origin, the destination, the extent, the nature and the purpose of movements. Fields of Transport Geography:  Transport networks Transport demand Transport nodes Information systems Field methods Population geography Political Geography Regional planning Economic geography Historical geography Regional geography Regional economics Location theory Natural resources Resource planning Environmental studies Spatial optimization Urban geography Land use Spatial statistics, modeling Cartography Operations research World geography ECONOMICS POLITICAL SCIENCE ECONOMICS HISTORY MATHEMATICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE PLANNING NATURAL SCIENCES ECONOMICS, SOCIOLOGY Fields at the core of transport geography Fields related to transport geography Transport geography Fields of Transport Geography Transportation as a Derived Demand:  Transportation as a Derived Demand Working Activity Vacationing Derived Demand Manufacturing Commuting Taxi Air travel Touring bus Trucks Containership Direct Energy Indirect Warehousing Transportation is not the same as logistics, it’s only a part of it! Transport geography sub-sectors:  Transport geography sub-sectors Distribution Centres Suppliers Customers Industrial Geography Commercial / Retail Geography Geography of Distribution The Spatial Consideration of a Movement:  The Spatial Consideration of a Movement A B Walking Cycling Driving D(W) D(C) D(D) Friction of Space Movement Distance (D) Time The Transport / Land Use System:  Land Use Transport System Spatial Interactions Accessibility Traffic assignment models Transport capacity Economic base theory Location theory Traffic generation and attraction models Spatial interaction models Distance decay parameters Modal split Infrastructures (supply) Friction of Space Spatial Accumulation (demand) The Transport / Land Use System Slide9:  Historical Evolution of Transportation Roman Road Network, 200 AD:  Roman Road Network, 200 AD 500 km Atlantic Ocean Red Sea Black Sea Adriatic Sea Mediterranean Ocean The Silk Road and the Arab Sea Routes:  The Silk Road and the Arab Sea Routes Guangzhou Xi’an Lanzhou Dunhuang Turpan Hotan Kashgar Samarkand Merv Bactra Bukhara Rey Hamadan Baghdad Berenike Alexandria Tyre Antioch Constantinople Athens Rome Muza Aden Kané Muscat Sur Mogadishu Mombasa Barbaricon Barygaza Muziris Calcutta CHINA INDIA PERSIA ARABIA EUROPE EGYPT JAVA Indian Ocean Arabian Sea South China Sea Mediterranean Ocean Black Sea Caspian Sea Gobi Desert Taklimakan Desert Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Red Sea SOMALIA 500 Miles Malacca Bay of Bengal Grand Canal System:  Grand Canal System Hangzhou Suzhou Yangzhou Chuzhou Jizhou Kaifeng Luoyang Beijing Huaiyin Bian Canal (Song) Tongji Canal (Sui) Jizhou Canal (Yuan) Yangzhou Canal (Song and Yuan) Jiangnan Canal (Sui, Song and Yuan) Yongji Canal (Sui and Yuan) Tonghui Canal (Yuan) Yongji Canal (Sui) Jiao-Lai Canal (Yuan) 400 km Old course of the Yellow River (Song) Yellow Sea East China Sea Early European Maritime Expeditions:  Early European Maritime Expeditions Treaty of Tordesillas Line (1494) Cabot (1497) Colombus (1492-93) Gama (1497-99) Magellan (1519-22) Cape Verde 370 leagues Colonial Trade Pattern, North Atlantic, 18th Century:  Colonial Trade Pattern, North Atlantic, 18th Century North Atlantic Ocean North America Africa Europe South America West Indies Dominant wind Trade Route Slaves, Gold, Pepper Sugar, Molasses, Fruits Tobacco, Furs, Indigo, Lumber 1) Sugar, Molasses, Slaves 2) Flour, Meat, Lumber Manufactures 1 2 Industrial revolution:  Industrial revolution Rocket, the first locomotive built by Stephenson Ogden (Utah), 10 May 1869: Union Pacific and Central Pacific lines conjunction Geographical Impact of the Suez Canal, 1869:  Geographical Impact of the Suez Canal, 1869 16,000 KM 10,000 KM Geographical Impact of the Panama Canal, 1914:  Geographical Impact of the Panama Canal, 1914 NORTH AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA Panama Canal 21,000 KM 8,000 KM Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Slide18:  Transport system Transport modes:  Transport modes Road transport Rail transport Sea transport Air transport Inland waterways (rivers) Pipelines Distance, Modal Choice and Transport Costs :  Distance Transport costs per unit Road Rail Maritime D1 D2 C1 C2 C3 Distance, Modal Choice and Transport Costs Modal split in Europe:  Modal split in Europe Sea (within Europe) Pipeline River Railway Road years Source: EU Modal split in the European Freight Traffic Freight Transport by mode:  Freight Transport by mode Market Share by Freight Transport Mode, United States, 1980-2000 (in ton-miles):  Market Share by Freight Transport Mode, United States, 1980-2000 (in ton-miles) Modal Advantages:  Modal Advantages Slide25:  Road transport History:  History PATHS: Horses and oxen were the first form of road transport; ROMAN ROAD NETWORK built for commercial and military purposes for the transit of Roman chariots and troops MIDDLE AGE: bad quality of roads; improvement during the Renaissance; INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: steam powered engines were developed, but most were too heavy for common roads MODERN PAVED ROADS: increase in commercial flows => McAdam developed an inexpensive paving material of soil and stone aggregate (known as MACADAM); Roads basis put a few feet higher than the surrounding terrain to cause water to drain away from the surface (and hence the birth of the term HIGHWAY) Road tarring to reduce erosion => tarmacadam, or TARMAC NOWADAYS: Roadways are principally asphalt or concrete; Asphalt is known as a flexible pavement Concrete is a rigid pavement => heavier loads, but more expensive and requires more carefully prepared subbase. Major roads are concrete and local roads are asphalt Road statistics: ASECAP countries - Motorway Network length:  Road statistics: ASECAP countries - Motorway Network length Road statistics: ASECAP Network evolution (1995-2005):  Road statistics: ASECAP Network evolution (1995-2005) Road statistics: ASECAP Network - Average daily traffic:  Road statistics: ASECAP Network - Average daily traffic Road Transportation Bottlenecks:  Road Transportation Bottlenecks Traffic interruption Lane reduction Merging Distraction => CONGESTION Recurring Congestion:  Recurring Congestion Unused Capacity The Vicious Circle of Congestion :  Congestion Public pressures to increase capacity New capacity Movements are more easy Urban sprawl is favored The average length of movements increases The number of movements increases The Vicious Circle of Congestion Slide34:  TIR System an overview The TIR System:  TIR System is an international transit system for goods carried entirely or partly by road The only transit system with a world-wide coverage TIR - Principles The TIR System Slide36:  1949 - 6 Pioneer States: B, D, F,I, L, NL 2005 - 56 TIR operational countries Additional Contracting Parties “Special”: the TIR System “Special”: the TIR System:  TIR CONVENTION SafeTIR Mutual Recognition of Customs Controls Controlled Access International Chain of Guarantee Secure vehicles & containers TIR Carnet “Special”: the TIR System TIR - Strategic Benefits:  Reduced delays and costs for international transit of goods carried entirely or partly by road Encouragement of regional and international trade Economic benefits for the countries concerned Multilateral => access 56 TIR countries TIR - Strategic Benefits Slide39:  Encourages the secure development of international trade (controlled access, traceability) Reduces transport costs by reducing formalities & delays in transit Facilitates transit movements by the application of standardised controls & documentation TIR = Secure Trade Facilitation Slide40:  Rail transport History:  History The first railways were built in Great Britain (also known as wagonways) in the early 17th century Rail transport starts within the Industrial revolution period (1804) The pioneer is Richard Trevithick, first steam engine locomtive prototype. Cargo: 10t / Average speed: 14 km/h (1825) George Stephenson. Test of a machine on Stockton – Darlington line (43 km) able to carry passengers and cargos. Average speed: 20 km/h. ROCKET Cargo: 15t / Average speed: 30 km/h First European national lines: 1832 France; 1835 Belgium; 1836 Russia;1838 Germany; 1839 Italy USA (1829) First U.S. line Baltimore –Ohio river and Augusta – Charleston (South Carolina) (1850) 14.500 km for U.S. railways; 48.300 km in 1860 (1869) First U.S. transcontinental line Conjunction between Union Pacific and Central Pacific Evolution of the Railway Network (in km), 1850-1913:  Evolution of the Railway Network (in km), 1850-1913 European Rail Network (in km), 1840-1914:  European Rail Network (in km), 1840-1914 Rail types:  Rail types Standard gauge 1435 mm Reduced gauge < than 1435 mm (1067 mm in Centre and South Africa, 1000 mm Swiss and South American mountain regions, and 914 mm); weight limits and reduced speed Augmented gauge > than 1435 mm Differences in gauge standards due to military strategy These different standards have caused nowadays problems of interoperability between national railways Railway density:  Railway density Source:European Commission DG TREN Railway Employment (in thousands):  Railway Employment (in thousands) Source:European Commission DG TREN High speed network in Europe:  High speed network in Europe Italian Railway Network:  Italian Railway Network Source:RFI Slide49:  Sea transport Port Sites:  Port Sites In a delta Margin of a delta Along a river Natural harbors In an estuary Near an estuary In a bay Protected Basic Constraints of Port Sites:  Basic Constraints of Port Sites Maritime Space Land Space Infrastructures Port Land Access Maritime Access Interface Investments needed to start a new service:  Investments needed to start a new service 7 2.500/2.700 TEUs ships ~ US$ 60Millions + 1 set of containers ~ US$ 50Millions Totale: ~ US$ 470,000,000 The Evolution of a Port:  The Evolution of a Port Setting Expansion Specialization 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 Downtown Urban expansion Terminal facilities Port-related activities Rail Highway Water depth Reconversion 3 Evolution of the Port of Rotterdam:  Evolution of the Port of Rotterdam Slide55:  Intercontinental links Slide56:  European regional sea services Slide57:  North – South services Slide58:  Europe and North America Slide59:  WORLD SEA TRANSPORT FLOWS Sea transport is used for more than 90% of world trade In 2004: 6.542 millions of tons (more than 6,7% compared to 2003) Slide60:  WORLD FLEET There are some 50.000 commercial ships for international traffic. World fleet is widespread in more than 150 countries There are more than 80 world countries interested in international sea traffics and there are 3.000 harbours where world commercial ships land and load/unload different types of goods WORLD TRANSPORT OF CONTAINERS:  WORLD TRANSPORT OF CONTAINERS Year Teus Growth 2002 68.200.000 - 2003 76.600.000 +12,3% 2004 84.000.000 + 9,7% 2005 92.800.000 +10,4% Source: DYNA LINERS (2003) Slide62:  TOP TEN CARRIERS Slide64:  The 50 Largest Container Ports, 1950-2000 (TEUs) Slide65:  *transhipment Ranking of the main 15 containers’ harbours in the MEDITERRANEAN SEA, period 2000 – 2003 (in thousand of Teu) Slide66:  Other potential HUB ports in the Mediterranean * +*** * * ** + Slide67:  Expected volume of containers in the Mediterranean Traffic volume expressed in millions of teu and Mediterranean port saturation. (Source: Contship OSC) In 2010 Port offer will increase by 27,8 % The traffic will augment by 38,9 % The saturation percentage will exceed the 80% critical threshold Slide68:  Comparison between Italian ports draught and other Mediterranean and Northern European ports Draught in meters Northern Europe Mediterranean Italy Slide69:  Air transport Geographical Scales of Airport Location:  Geographical Scales of Airport Location International / Regional Local Airport Components:  Terminal Isle Terminal Shuttles 1 2 3 Airport Components Airfield Airport Hubbing Level:  Airport Hubbing Level None High Percentage Passengers Connecting 50% 25% 0% Airport Passenger Traffic per Continent, 1998-2001:  Airport Passenger Traffic per Continent, 1998-2001 Passenger traffic at the World's top 20 Airports, (2001):  Passenger traffic at the World's top 20 Airports, (2001) European main commercial airports:  European main commercial airports World’s Largest Passengers Airports, 2001 (in millions):  World’s Largest Passengers Airports, 2001 (in millions) Passenger Traffic at the World’s Largest Airports, 2001:  Passenger Traffic at the World’s Largest Airports, 2001 Atlanta Chicago Los Angeles London Tokyo Dallas / Ft Worth Frankfurt Paris Airport Cargo Traffic per Continent, 1998-2001 (in metric tons):  Airport Cargo Traffic per Continent, 1998-2001 (in metric tons) Freight traffic at the World's top 20 Airports, (2001):  Freight traffic at the World's top 20 Airports, (2001) World’s Largest Freight Airports, 2001 (in millions of metric tons):  World’s Largest Freight Airports, 2001 (in millions of metric tons) Freight Traffic at the World’s Largest Airports, 2001:  Freight Traffic at the World’s Largest Airports, 2001 Memphis Hong Kong Anchorage Los Angeles Tokyo Miami Frankfurt Paris Airline companies: employment, fleet and turnover:  Airline companies: employment, fleet and turnover

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