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Domlec Presentation

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Published on November 7, 2007

Author: Misree

Source: authorstream.com

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Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations The presentation will describe the Domlec experience with hydro under the following headings: System Overview. History of the Hydro System. The Water Conveyance System. Generating Plant. Displacement of Diesel Generation. Operational Benefits & Disadvantages. Weather Maintenance & Replacement System Stability Environmental Impact Future of hydro and other renewable energy sources at Domlec. Where is Dominica?:  Where is Dominica? Commonwealth of Dominica:  Commonwealth of Dominica Dominica Roseau Valley:  Dominica Roseau Valley Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations System Overview Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations The first hydro generator was installed in 1952 in what is now known as the Old Trafalgar Power Station. Another generator was also commissioned there in that same year. The third one was installed in 1961. This gave a total plant output of 960 kilowatts. In 1967 the Padu Power Station, consisting of two turbines was commissioned, each with an installed capacity of 940kW. In 1989, a new hydro expansion scheme was initiated. In December 1990 the Laudat Power Station was commissioned with an installed capacity of 1,300kW; followed by New Trafalgar in September 1991 with two turbines of 1,760kW each. The total extra capacity added with the conclusion of the hydro project was 4,800kW. History of the Hydro System Hydro System:  Hydro System Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations The Water-Conveyance System Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations CLARKE'S RIVER DIVERSION The highest source or water supply is from the Clarke's river intake. The Clarke's river which originally flowed from the Boeri Lake to the windward coast, has been mostly diverted into the Three Streams Channel for increased input into the Fresh Water Lake. The Clarke's river diversion comprises of a diversion weir of crest elevation 802m, which is about 2m above the existing riverbed. The weir is constructed of cemented rubble masonry with normal reinforced facing and reinforced concrete wing walls. The diverted flow is carried into the Fresh Water Lake by a 457mm diameter wood stave pipe, 1,032m long, which discharges into the head of an existing diversion channel, known as The Three Streams. The Water-Conveyance System Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations FRESH WATER LAKE RESERVOIR The Fresh Water Lake is a natural lake located on the east side of Morne Micotrin at an elevation of 760m. The lake level which was raised in 1976 by the construction of a 2m high gravity concrete weir is raised by 6m, from elevation 756.5m to 762.5m. The original storage volume estimated at 112,000m³, with a full supply level is now of the order of 625,000m³. The water retaining structure comprises of an un-gated concrete overflow weir, flanked on both sides by fill embankment and a bottom outlet to supply the power pipeline. The Water-Conveyance System Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations PENSTOCK (TRAFALGAR AND LAUDAT) Treated clear Douglas Fir Wood is used for the construction of a 914mm diameter wood stave pipeline 2,320m long for a design flow of 0.71 cubic meters per second. The pipeline runs from the Fresh Water Lake Reservoir to a wooden surge tank, 4m in diameter, 16.7m in height and constructed from the same material. A steel pipeline of 762mm diameter and 650m long runs from the surge tank to the new power house at Laudat. Water from the turbine is taken to a balancing tank via a 760mm wood stave pipe 171m long. Another wood pipeline 1,016mm diameter and 535m long designed for a flow of 1.09m³/5 per second from another source at Titou Gorge, discharges into the balancing tank. The Water-Conveyance System Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations PENSTOCK (TRAFALGAR AND LAUDAT) (Cont’d) A 1,016mm diameter wood stave pipe 526m long for a design flow of 1.96m³/5 is constructed from the balancing tank and joins a 1,016mm diameter steel pipeline 329m long to the top of a vertical cliff. A 914mm diameter pipe 63m long drops vertically to the base of the cliff, then continues for 400m before it bifurcates to the Old and New Trafalgar Power Stations. The Water-Conveyance System Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations PADU HEADWORKS Water is collected by means of a diversion weir across the Roseau River, a short distance upstream of the Old Trafalgar Power Station. The flow is channeled through a gate system and an iron grid to a fore-bay designed to extract silt. Spent water from the Old Trafalgar plant combines with that from the river weir to flow across to the (new) Padu intake tank. At this tank more water from the tailrace of the two NT turbines is added before flowing to the Padu turbines. From the head pond to the power house, steel pipes of 0.91m (3ft) and 0.76m (2.5ft) diameters have been used. At two locations along this route to the penstock passes through two short tunnels, one being 104m long and the other 49m long. A steel surge tank located about 1,026m from the head pond regulates the pressure surges from the turbines from load changes. The Water-Conveyance System Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Generating Plant Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations LAUDAT AND NEW TRAFALGAR Most of the equipment in both stations have a similar configuration and design. The turbines for example, all have the same size of casing. All the units including Laudat are designed for local or remote operation on manual or automatic control from the New Trafalgar control center. (The control centre also handles some aspects of control for the Padu Power Station and Old Trafalgar plants). The loading on Laudat and New Trafalgar (and also on Padu and Old Trafalgar) will depend on factors such as the volume of water available; and current flows at the intake sources. Water level regulation at the Fresh Water Lake and the Balancing Tank is therefore an important function of the Power Station Operator. Generating Plant Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations PADU This Station is designed for semi-remote control from Trafalgar (starting and stopping sequences of the turbines has to be done at Padu). This is achieved by telemetering cable link between the two stations. OLD TRAFALGAR This Station is presently in a state of refurbishment. In any event, the present design can only allow for generation from Old Trafalgar when flows into the Balancing Tank are extremely high, which is not too often. Generating Plant Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations An area of key concern re: alternative energy sources such as hydro generation is the displacement of fossil fuel generation. Following are the statistics of Domlec diesel consumption, fuel prices and estimates of the quantity and value of diesel consumption displaced by hydro generation from 1992, when the most recent hydro expansion was completed, to 2004. Displacement of Diesel Generation Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations It should be noted that until 1992, Hydro accounted for approximately 75% of Domlec energy production. Then until 2001, there was a significant increase in diesel production as both the grid and demand expanded at a rate too rapid to be paced by hydro expansion. This left diesel expansion, with the Fond Cole power station becoming a 24hour per day operation and the construction of a second diesel station in the North of the island, as the selected options to meet required load. Displacement of Diesel Generation Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Operational Benefits and Disadvantages Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Operational Benefits and Disadvantages Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Operational Benefits and Disadvantages Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Operational Benefits and Disadvantages Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Operational Benefits and Disadvantages Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Operational Benefits and Disadvantages Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Operational Benefits and Disadvantages Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Environmental Impact (Continued) Maintenance of wood stave pipes: Wood preservative is inherently poisonous, and a great deal of care and attention must be given to minimize its use and seepage. It’s not all bad news however. An unexpected benefit is that crayfish (freshwater prawns) grow very well beneath the turbine housings and provide an excellent treat for any maintenance staff who can cook them. Operational Benefits and Disadvantages Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Internal and External Customer Relations & Expectations The expectation among many customers is that renewable energy will cause their bills to decrease significantly. This is due to the widely promoted view that renewable energy is cheaper, but two conditions for this are usually lost/ignored in the public discussion. Renewable energy only becomes cheaper if/when Oil prices are high/rising at a faster rate than the capital cost of renewable energy. The capital costs of the project are recovered. Further, the customers’ bills will only decrease if the other costs remain constant when the reducing cost phase of renewable energy kicks in. Let us look briefly and the most recent case in Dominica. Operational Benefits and Disadvantages Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Internal and External Customer Relations & Expectations (continued) When Dominica completed its last Hydro expansion (at Trafalgar and Laudat) at a cost of about 30MU$, the world oil price was about U$9 per barrel (45IG)! So, initially the project was perceived as a financial disaster. Consumers were promised significantly lower bills than what they were seeing with oil at 9U$/IG. Fast forward to today, where Domlec now pays U$4 per IG, people are now saying, “Thank God for hydro! Why didn’t you build more??! Why are our bills still rising when you promised hydro would bring decreases?” Operational Benefits and Disadvantages Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Internal and External Customer Relations & Expectations (continued) The cost of fuel is a significant portion of the customer’s bill. Therefore, as fuel price varies, the bills vary. Hydro production displaces fuel used. Therefore, as hydro varies, the bills vary. This exacerbates an already very difficult situation for customers: Instability of electricity costs and the consequent difficulties with budgeting. It literally drives them crazy! The bills now vary not only with oil prices, but also with the weather. If it’s a problem for your customer, its going to be a problem for you! (Influence on policies adopted, receivables, security, public confidence and perception, etc.) Operational Benefits and Disadvantages Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations Internal and External Customer Relations & Expectations (continued) The expectations of both internal and external customers must be very delicately managed. Do not oversell the financial benefits!! If for no other reason than to ensure that support for renewable energy efforts is not eroded by backlash against promises not realized. Personal point. As an engineer, manager, and servant of the public, I adamantly refuse to argue for renewable energy from a financial perspective. Key arguments for renewable energy options: Energy Security: You ‘own’ the energy source. By definition and fact, the energy sources are naturally renewed at a much faster rate than oil. (1GWh of hydro energy is recouped much faster than it would take 1GWh of oil to form). Operational Benefits and Disadvantages Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations The Future of Hydro and other Renewable Energy Sources at Domlec. Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations The Future of Hydro and other Renewable Energy Sources at Domlec. Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations The Future of Hydro and other Renewable Energy Sources at Domlec. Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations:  Introduction To Domlec Hydroelectric Operations

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