advertisement

Dolium environment executive summary lca dispack projects web

50 %
50 %
advertisement
Information about Dolium environment executive summary lca dispack projects web
Technology

Published on March 1, 2014

Author: Dolium

Source: slideshare.net

Description

External Report
Comparative screening Life Cycle Assessment of Two types of beer kegs
by VITO
advertisement

Confidential (Contract 111475) EXTERNAL REPORT Comparative screening Life Cycle Assessment of two types of beer kegs Final report 2012/TEM/008 Marynissen Philip, Boonen Katrien and Vercalsteren An January 2012

        This  study  is  to  compare  the  ecological  footprint  of     DOLIUM ®  1  way  kegs.         For  more  info  or  more  detailed  information  about  this  study,   please  contact  us.     http://dolium.eu/en/content/contact    

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Dispack-Projects asked VITO to perform a study on the environmental impact of their one way (OW) plastic kegs as an alternative for returnable stainless steel kegs to transport beer over long distances. Dispack-Projects considers this information as useful knowledge to be able to inform their customers about the environmental aspects of OW plastic kegs. Therefore VITO suggested to perform a comparative screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of the different keg types under study: 20 & 30l OW plastic and 20, 30 & 50l returnable stainless steel kegs. As VITO follows the ISO standards 14040/44, the design of this report complies with the 4 phases of LCA (goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment and interpretation) as defined by ISO, whereby the various chapters describe each phase of the LCA. During the first phase of the project the goal and scope of the study and the reference base (functional unit) is clearly formulated and defined to allow a correct analysis from the system’s perspective. This functional unit is determined as “the production, transport, use and disposal of containers to supply 1 hl of beer to the consumer market”. The study is performed for the entire life cycle of the beer keg (cradle to grave). Dispack-Projects delivered VITO the product specific input and output data for both plastic and stainless steel kegs which resulted in a detailed inventory analysis. This is the base for the life cycle impact assessment. The life cycle impact assessment, using the ReCiPe methodology, leads to the generation of individual and comparative environmental profiles. - Individual profiles give information on the environmental hot spots in the life cycle of the plastic kegs, which is important for future improvement options. - Comparative profiles give an indication of the environmental impact of the OW plastic kegs compared to alternatives (benchmark). - Both the relative and the normalized contributions of the different life cycle stages of the kegs to 18 defined environmental impact categories are calculated. When analyzing the individual environmental profiles of the 20l & 30l plastic kegs, a similarity between both environmental profiles can be seen. - The production of the preform has the most important contribution to most impact categories and a fair contribution to the others. - The (long distance) transport (approximately defined as 500 km) of the filled kegs from the brewery to importer has the largest contribution to the impact categories ‘ozone depletion’, ‘photochemical oxidant formation’, ‘particulate matter formation’, ‘terrestrial acidification’, ‘terrestrial ecotoxicity’, ‘urban land occupation’ and ‘natural land transformation’ . - The production of the spear has a relevant influence to the impact category ‘metal depletion’, ‘marine ecotoxicity’ and ‘freshwater ecotoxicity’. - The recycling of the plastic parts results in environmental benefits or credits, which are the largest for the impact category ‘fossil depletion’. The normalization of these environmental profiles shows that the environmental impact categories ‘natural land transformation’, ‘marine ecotoxicity’, ‘freshwater eutrophication’ and ‘freshwater ecotoxicity’ are the most relevant categories compared to the annual environmental impact of one European (due to its consumption). 3

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In the comparison of the plastic kegs with the stainless steel kegs it is important to define the tipping point, which is the distance between brewery and importer from which the environmental impact of the OW plastic kegs becomes lower than the stainless steel kegs. To be able to define the tipping point, the comparative environmental profile excluding the long distance transport life cycle stage and using the EoL (End of Life) recycling approach, is developed. This comparative profile shows some important differences between the keg types under study. - 20l plastic kegs: o For 8 of the 18 impact categories the 20l plastic kegs have a significantly lower contribution than the 20l stainless steel kegs. o For the remaining impact categories there is a difference, but this is not significant. o For ‘human toxicity’ (non significant difference) and ‘freshwater eutrophication’ (significant difference) the 20l plastic kegs have a higher impact than the stainless steel kegs. - 30l plastic kegs compared to 30l stainless steel: o The impact of the 30l plastic kegs is lower than the impact of the 30l stainless steel kegs for all impact categories with exception of ‘freshwater eutrophication’. o The difference for this impact category of ‘freshwater eutrophication’ is not significant. o For all other impact categories except for ‘human toxicity’ the difference is significant. - 30l plastic kegs compared to 50l stainless steel: o When comparing the 30l plastic kegs to the 50l stainless steel kegs, one can see there is almost an overall advantage for the 30l plastic keg concerning the relative contribution to the different impact categories. o Only for ‘freshwater eutrophication’ the contribution of the 30l plastic keg is larger than the contribution of the 50l stainless steel keg. This difference is not significant. o For all other impact categories except for ‘human toxicity’, ‘photochemical oxidant formation’, ‘ionising radiation’, ‘natural land transformation’ and ‘fossil depletion’ the difference is significant. These comparisons show that the plastic kegs (and particularly the 30l keg) have a significant lower contribution to (in policy context) important categories like climate change, which is directly related to the emission of CO2, and to most of the (eco)toxicity related impact categories, which strongly relate to the heavy metal emissions to our environment. Using the 30l plastic kegs for supplying 1 hl of beer to the consumer market has the lowest impact of all 5 options in most impact categories, even without taking into account the long distance transport between brewery and importer. Based upon the comparative environmental profiles the tipping points were calculated for both the 20l and 30l kegs. The tipping point is the travel distance at which the disposable plastic kegs become an environmentally sound alternative to reusable stainless steel kegs. The tipping point is calculated for the impact categories ‘human toxicity’ and ‘freshwater eutrophication’ (as shown in the table below). The tipping point based on the impact category ‘human toxicity’ (20l kegs) was chosen to be included in the following comparative environmental profiles. When kegs are used to catch the peak use of the summertime, the larger kegs (especially the 30l plastic kegs) are the better environmental alternative, since they have the lowest environmental impact even when the transport distance is zero (thus when they are not in circulation).

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Lorry >32t Human toxicity Freshwater eutrophication EoLapproach 50/50approach EoLapproach 50/50approach 641 km 1243 km 8746 km 9735 km 20 l keg Transoceanic freight ship + Lorry >32t 4919 km + 100 km 10382 km + 100 km 48240 km + 100 km 53753 km + 100 km Train + Lorry >32t 391 km + 100 km 825 km + 100 km 3598 km + 100 km 4009 km + 100 km Lorry >32t 30l keg Transoceanic freight ship + Lorry >32t Train + Lorry >32t 0 km 0 km 0 km 0 km 0 km 0 km 3944 km + 100 km 4917 km + 100 km 294 km + 100 km 367 km + 100 km 803 km 977 km As shown below in the comparative environmental profile including long distance transport, based on the tipping point for ‘human toxicity’ (20l kegs) using the EoL recycling approach, the plastic kegs only have a higher environmental impact for the impact category ‘freshwater eutrophication'. This difference is not significant. When comparing the comparative environmental profiles, excluding and including long distance transport, it is clear that a longer transport distance leads to a higher environmental impact. When the long distance transport increases, the environmental impact of the plastic kegs will increase relatively less than the stainless steel kegs. As such the difference between the environmental impact of plastic kegs versus stainless steel kegs will evolve in favour of the plastic kegs when (long) transport distances increase. This is relevant for 20l and even more for 30l kegs. When recycling of the plastic kegs is not possible (e.g. because of the absence of recycling infrastructure at the end of life location of the kegs), this will result in a change of the environmental (comparative) profiles. Instead of recycling, the kegs can be incinerated or landfilled. When the kegs are incinerated with energy recovery, this end-of-life treatment still generates credits in most impact categories, although mostly smaller than when the kegs are recycled. When the kegs are landfilled, this generates a small (negligible) additional environmental impact. Thus, both incineration and landfilling decrease the environmental benefit from the plastic kegs in comparison to the stainless steel variants. This decrease is the largest for landfilling. The tipping point will shift to a larger distance. 5

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 100% 90% 80% Relative contribution 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 20 liter Plastic keg (per FU) 20 liter Stainl.St. keg (per FU) 30 liter Plastic keg (per FU) 30 liter Stainl.St. keg (per FU) 50 liter Stainl.St. keg (per FU) Next to the EoL recycling approach, the comparative environmental profile for all types of kegs under study was modeled with the 50/50 recycling approach. This approach is less beneficial for the plastic kegs than the EoL recycling approach since less credits are given to the recycling of the kegs at end of life. When making this comparison, the 20l plastic kegs have: a significantly lower contribution than the stainless steel kegs to 7 of 18 environmental impact categories. - Also for 4 other impact categories the contribution of the 20l plastic kegs is smaller than those of the stainless steel variants, however this difference is not significant. - For 3 impact categories there is a significantly smaller contribution for the 20l stainless steel keg. - For 4 other impact categories the stainless steel keg also has a smaller impact, however this difference is not significant. The impact of the 30l plastic kegs is: - lower than the impact of the 30l stainless steel kegs for all impact categories with exception of ‘photochemical oxidant formation’, ‘freshwater eutrophication’ and ‘fossil depletion’. - The difference is significant for ‘fossil depletion’ only. - For all other impact categories, where the plastic keg has a lower contribution, the difference is significant, except for ‘climate change’, ‘human toxicity’, ‘terrestrial acidification’ and ‘natural land transformation’.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY When comparing the 30l plastic kegs to the 50l stainless steel kegs, - One can see there is almost an overall advantage for the 30l plastic keg concerning the relative contribution to the different impact categories. - The difference is significant for 8 of 18 impact categories. - Only for the impact categories ‘freshwater eutrophication’ and ‘photochemical oxidant formation’ the contribution of the 30l plastic keg is larger than the contribution of the 50l stainless steel keg. This difference is not significant. And finally, in a sensitivity analysis the effect of a change in trip rate was calculated. The comparison includes long distance transport per truck based on the calculated tipping point for the 20l keg and impact category human toxicity. Even in the best case scenario for the stainless steel (3 rotations) the impact of the plastic 30l keg is the smallest for all impact categories, except for ‘freshwater eutrophication’. The intended audience of this ISO 14040/14044 conform screening LCA-study is Dispack-Projects in the first place and external stakeholders (like breweries) at the second stage. When Dispack-Projects would like to publish the results of this study to the general public (e.g. in brochures) as an ISO 14040/14044-conform study, the ISO-procedure prescribes a third party review is needed before publication. 7

        This  study  is  to  compare  the  ecological  footprint  of     DOLIUM ®  1  way  kegs.         For  more  info  or  more  detailed  information  about  this  study,   please  contact  us.     http://dolium.eu/en/content/contact    

Add a comment

Related presentations

Presentación que realice en el Evento Nacional de Gobierno Abierto, realizado los ...

In this presentation we will describe our experience developing with a highly dyna...

Presentation to the LITA Forum 7th November 2014 Albuquerque, NM

Un recorrido por los cambios que nos generará el wearabletech en el futuro

Um paralelo entre as novidades & mercado em Wearable Computing e Tecnologias Assis...

Microsoft finally joins the smartwatch and fitness tracker game by introducing the...

Related pages

Dolium Desteldonk, Boisson - Nourriture - Info, actus ...

Tout sur Dolium Boisson - Nourriture à Desteldonk. 2nd Generation One Way Keg in PET for liquid beverage as beer, wine etc.
Read more

Dolium Desteldonk, Alimentos - Bebidas - Información ...

Todo sobre Dolium Alimentos - Bebidas en Desteldonk. 2nd Generation One Way Keg in PET for liquid beverage as beer, wine etc.
Read more

Lca tejas-india's-light-combat-aircraft - Science

... 2011Home A monthly house bulletin of Defence Research & Development Organisation Vol. 31 No. 2 February 2011 LCA Tejas achieves Initial ...
Read more

71845 cbs executive 0209 web - Documents

71845 cbs executive 0209 web ...
Read more