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Information about DoesGenderMatterWEB

Published on January 4, 2008

Author: Elliott



Slide1:  Presented by Josephine MacIntosh XV World Congress of Sexology Montreal Quebec, July 2005 Prepared By: Josephine MacIntosh, Rachel Phillips, Murray Anderson & Cecilia Benoit Department of Sociology - University of Victoria Research funded by: Sara Spencer Foundation Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research Prostitutes Empowerment Education and Resource Society Does Gender Matter? Males & Females in the Sex Trade Objectives:  Objectives Explore gender differences & similarities in a non-random sample of sex industry workers situated in Victoria, BC, Canada Explore whether male privilege common in most jobs holds true for male STWs e.g., higher earnings, more occupational control, lower morbidity To explore the effects of gender on Worker experiences Methods and Data :  Methods and Data Project initiated by community partner: Prostitutes Empowerment Education and Resource Society (PEERS) Community-academic collaboration; employed experiential research assistants Diverse research tool including closed ended (n=201) and open-ended (n=79) questions on a range of topics. Full Report: Benoit and Millar (2001) Dispelling Myths and Understanding Realities Sample Size for this Report: 113 respondents located in the Victoria Region Work Status: All active in STW Gender: 90 females, 23 males Work Location: majority of respondents had worked in a variety of venues, including both indoor and outdoor sex work. Results:  Results Demographic similarities by gender Age (mean = 33 yrs; range 19 – 61 yrs ) Ethnicity (White) Education (Completed grade 10) Length of time living in the city (10 yrs) Age turned first trick (21 yrs) A few reported forced involvement None defined as part of global trafficking Similar family backgrounds Results:  Results Differences in sexual identity by gender Overall, 46% self-identified as sexual minorities However, male STWs much more likely to self-identify as a belonging to a sexual minority F (1, 113) = 13.29, p < .001 Results:  Results Reasons for Entering the Sex Trade Economic duress: Males 4%; Females 39% Bills, kids to feed, no job, ineligible for welfare “No money, no means, no other choice” Female, 42, street Enticement: Males 61%; Females 26% Easy money, opportunity,curiosity “Just being curious, opportunities, people offering me opportunities” Male, 29, home Results:  Results Frequency of STW Vast majority report STW as main job Males more home-based, females more street & agency Annual Income from STW Mean = $22,900 (just above f/t minimum wage) Males = $16,800; Females = $24,600 less control over $ Similar levels of income, near minimum wage Annual Income from Other Work Mean = $4,600 Males = $9,000; Females = $3,500 Males report more non-sex trade income Results:  Results Occupational Control Females report less control over money Genders report similar levels of control over (p > .05) Career in the long term Having sex with more than one John at one time Number of clients per shift Place where sex trade activities are performed Type of sexual activities performed Condom use Hours worked and time off Both genders reported “a lot” or “full” control Results:  Results Both genders report Control over their own sex trade activities Sometimes with a partner in the trade Control increases with experience Consistent condom use for penetrative sex High rates of injuries at work 48% of males and 53% of females had sought treatment for injuries incurred in the sex trade Females report more gonorrhea & chlamydia Results:  Results χ2 (6) = 15.14, p < .05 Conclusions:  Conclusions Male STWs report Similar demographics, backgrounds & experiences Similar earnings and occupational control Male privilege does not appear to function More paid work outside of the sex industry Less driven by economic need More job opportunities = male privilege Different reasons for entry Different attractions to the trade Many males appear to explore the sex trade Most women seem to resort to it Ongoing Research:  Ongoing Research Interactive Service Workers Occupational Health and Safety and Access to Health Services Study: Victoria, BC and Sacramento, CA. Principle Investigator: Cecilia Benoit, University of Victoria A longitudinal comparative model is used to overcome the limitations of cross-sectional data. This new study examines occupational experiences, health and health care access across sex work populations and between sex work populations and other lower-income service workers. Contact Information:  Contact Information Josephine MacIntosh University of Victoria E-mail: Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements Foremost, we would like to thank the sex workers who participated in the interviews that inform this report. Without their voices, this project would not have been possible In addition, a special thanks goes to our experiential research assistants who devoted not only their time and energy to the project, but also a dedication to extend and deepen our understanding of sex workers’ lives Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements We also thank the following organizations: Sandy Merriman House The Needle Exchange AIDS Vancouver Island BC Health Research Foundation Capital Health Region BC Centre of Excellence on Women’s Health University of Victoria PEERS

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