Published on March 10, 2014
“Metal Bio-indicator Plant Species of the Philippines” a De La Salle University Project under the PCIEERD-DOST PROGRAM FOR REHABILITATION AND RESTORATION OF MINING AREAS THROUGH PHYTOTECHNOLOGIES with Ateneo de Manila University and The University of the Philippines Los Banos
OBJECTIVES OF PROGRAM ARE: To identify and study the biology-ecology and chemistry of indigenous metallophyte species that can be used in phytotechnologies to restore mined-out areas To develop a protocol for propagating metallophyte species for use as metal bio- indicators, phytostabilization and post-mining metal recovery
SURVEY OF PLANTS IN METALLIFEROUS SOILS AND MINED OUT AREAS Collection and taxonomic identification of plants that are metallophytes (or those plants that thrive even in metal-rich soil conditions); and within the metallophyte species, identify those that are obligate or facultative and those that are hyperaccumulators - these plant species can be used as bio-indicators of heavy metal contamination and used for restoring mined-out areas (in phytostabilization) as well as recovery of the metal. DETERMINATION OF THE METAL CONTENT OF PLANT (ROOT, STEM AND LEAVES) AND SOIL SAMPLES Measurement of the heavy metal concentration of samples collected from metalliferous soils compared with those collected from non- metalliferous soils using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) CLASSIFICATION OF PLANT SPECIES BASED ON CAPACITY TO EXTRACT METAL FROM THE SOIL AND ACCUMULATE METAL IN THEIR TISSUES Determining which plant species are capable of bio-indication, phyto- extraction, and phyto-stablization using the ratio of metal content in soil to plant tissue to determine capacity to “take away” metal from soil
THE GOAL OF THE PROJECT is to develop an easy-to-use and cheap technology, using plants, to detect the presence of heavy metals in soils, to make detection, monitoring and the clean-up of mining areas easier for the mining sector and citizens, to accomplish.
ALSO, provide the mining sector and citizens the capacity to recognize and identify plant species that can ONLY survive in the presence of heavy metals (or obligate metal- lophytes) and recognize the CHANGES (adaptations) that occur in the morphology of plants that can survive in the presence or absence of heavy metals (or those that are facultative metallophytes).
PROJECT OBJECTIVE 1: Create a database of metal hyperaccumulator plant species naturally occurring in metal rich or ultramafic soils Specifically: 1.1 Conduct a taxonomic survey, with gross morphological descriptions, of metallophyte species (both hyperaccumulators and non- hyperaccumulators) and other associated vascular plant species thriving in metal rich and adjacent non-metal rich soils in six sites. These include: 1) Kalinga, 2) Marinduque Island, 3) Rapu-Rapu Island, Albay 4) Cebu, 5) Negros, and 6) Compostela Valley which are representative of phytogeographic regions following the distribution of ultramafics (metal rich or metalliferous substrates) in the Philippines
Specifically… 1.2 Compare the species found in metal rich soils with the species found in adjacent non- metal rich soils and relate the distribution of hyperaccumulator, non-hyperaccumulator and non-metallophyte (metal tolerant or non-tolerant) species to soil chemistry. 1.3 Determine the distribution of the metals in the roots, stem and leaves of hyperaccumulator plant species; identify the ligands; and compare the protein profiles of selected hyperaccumulators with other metallophytes and non-metallophytes. 2.1 Identify the obligate metallophytes (which may also be hyperaccumulator) species, or those that are found thriving only in metal rich soils; and facultative species , or those that are present in both metal rich and non-metal rich soils. 2.2 Describe and compare the gross morphological, morphometric and physiological characteristics of obligate, facultative metallophyes including hyperaccumulator species and non-metallophyte species..
Marinduque: Philippines Magmatic Arc Southern Luzon Geographic Region Compostela Valley Philippine Magmatic Arc Mindanao Biogeographic Region Negros: Masbate-Negros Magmatic Arc Western Visayas Biogeographic Region Kalinga: Luzon Central Cordillera Arc Northern/Southern Luzon Geographic Region Rapu-Rapu, Albay: Philippines Magmatic Arc Northern/Southern Luzon Geographic Region STUDY SITES Cebu: Central Philippines, Central Visayas Geographic Region
STUDY SITES SAMPLING SITES METALLIFEROUS NON-METALLIFEROUS LUZON Kalinga Pasil copper Balbalan Balbalan (Sesec-an) mercury from gold Balbalasan mining Marinduque Bocboc small scale mining gold, iron Torrijos Kapayang abandoned open pit copper Mt. Malindig Putting Buhangin abandoned open pit Pili-Butansapa tailings copper Rapu-Rapu Barangay Akal copper Mainland Bacacay Barangay Lumang Bisita copper Barangay Binosawan mining discharge VISAYAS Cebu Lutopan ( inside Carmen Balamban Copper Corporation) Sudlon Tabuna Negros Negros Occidental Negros Occidental Bulata copper Campuestuhan watershed Maricalum, Sipalay closed copper mine Negros Oriental Negros Oriental Basay closed copper mine Valencia MINDANAO Compostela Valley Barangay Tupaz small scale mining gold Mt. Candalaga Barangay Pamintaran copper Cagayan de Oro Barangay Cambagang gold processing New Katipunan (Poblacion) Iron
STUDY SITE 1: Kalinga (LUZON) SAMPLING SITES: Metalliferous (Metal Rich Sites) - Pasil - Balbalan (Sesec-an) Non-Metalliferous (Non-metal Rich Sites) - Balbalan - Balbalasan
STUDY SITE 1: Kalinga (LUZON) • Data collection conducted, additional data collected through interviews also conducted; samples being processed • Networking visits to DENR (Regional, Provincial and CENRO), NCIP (Provincial and Regional) and to institutional partner, Kalinga State University conducted • Community’s permission and from NCIP (Regional and Provincial) through Free Prior Informed Consent (FPIC) application already in process
Samples were collected from the copper, zinc, gold mining sites STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON) Kapayang Puting Buhangin SAMPLING SITES Metalliferous Non-Metalliferous Bocboc Torrijos Kapayang Mt. Malindig Putting Buhangin Pili-Butansapa
Samples were collected from the site where Marcopper Mining Company mine tailings spilled from a fractured drainage tunnel of an overburdened tailings dam (the old mined out pit of Mt. Tapian), toxic wastes eventually reaching Boac River. Pili-Butansapa STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON)
Samples were collected from the site of an old copper mine pit; site showing signs of vegetation (ecosystem recovery?) Pili-Butansapa STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON)
Samples were collected where Marcopper Mining Corporation mine tailings eventually spilled; site still suspected of being contaminated with heavy metals. Sudden vegetation re-colonization was observed after a flooding. Bocboc Sudden re-vegetation of site observed STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON)
STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON) • Four collection trips conducted with Marinduque State College (MSC) faculty, staff and LGU participation • Hundred seventy one (171) Plant and soil samples collected from six sampling sites. • Eighty one (81) specimens belong to 29 Families, and 37 Genera • characterization / chemical analysis on going • Networking resulted to training MSC faculty and staff in-situ and at DLSU, Manila • Training Kit / Plant Collections Starter Kit provided to MSC for reference A fractured drainage tunnel from an old mining pit now used as tailings pit led to the Marcopper Mining accident in 1996. Marcopper Mining Corporation abandoned site and operations. The parent company has since been sold to new owners. No big mining operations resumed in the island.
Samples were collected from sites where copper, gold and zinc may be present STUDY SITE 3: Rapu-Rapu Island, Albay (LUZON) SAMPLING SITES Metalliferous Barangay Akal Barangay Lumang Bisita Barangay Binosawan
Plant and soil samples were collected along the stream (believed to be) water directly discharging from the mining site (still locally referred to a “Lafayette” although officially owned by Rapu-Rapu Processing Inc. Barangay Binosawan is the community right next to the mining activiities. STUDY SITE 3: Rapu-Rapu Island, Albay (LUZON)
The island of Rapu-Rapu may be entirely metalliferous. Mining officially ceased in March 2013, but Mining Lease Agreement (MLA ) covers most (or 80% ) of the island. STUDY SITE 3: Rapu-Rapu Island, Albay (LUZON) • 280 Plant and soil samples were collected from selected sites throughout the entire island with two trips conducted • 126 specimens belong to 29 Families, 36 Genera • characterization / chemical analysis on going • Networking with church and LGU officials resulted to in-site training of volunteer members of Sagip Isla, Sagip Kapwa Church based People’s Organization • Divine Word College in Legaspi, Albay have agreed to participate in the collection of plants from non- metalliferous soils
STUDY SITE 4: Cebu (VISAYAS) SAMPLING SITES Metalliferous Lutopan (Inside Carmen Copper Corporation) Non-Metalliferous Balamban Sudlon Tabunan
With help from Carmen Copper Corporation (CCC) Environmental Unit and De La Salle – Don Andres Soriano Memorial College faculty and staff, samples were collected from different sites within the operational copper mining area. STUDY SITE 4: Cebu (VISAYAS)
STUDY SITE 4: Cebu (VISAYAS) • 75 Plant and soil samples were collected from three different sites within the Carmen Copper Corporation mining site in two trips; Plant and soil collection also conducted in nearby intact forests • 43 specimens belong to 13 Families, 11 Genera • Taxonomic data and chemical analysis Data presented to partners • select fern species subjected to morphometric measurements and ultrastructure examinations (SEM-EDX). Further analysis underway. • Networking resulted to the training of partner institution faculty, staff and CCC’s Environmental Unit staff.
STUDY SITE 5: Negros (VISAYAS) Samples were collected from a closed down mining site in Sipalay (Maricalum Mining Corporation for copper) with help from partner institution, University of St. La Salle, volunteer researchers. SAMPLING SITES Metalliferous Negros Occidental Bulata Maricalum, Sipalay (closed mining site) Negros Oriental Basay (closed mining site) Non-Metalliferous Negros Occidental Campuestohan Negros Oriental Valencia
Samples were collected along a stream directly discharging from one of the retention ponds (according to our LGU guides) in a closed mining site in Basay, Negros Oriental (leased to Copper Development Corporation CDC, in Hinobaan). STUDY SITE 5: Negros (VISAYAS)
Samples were collected from non- metalliferous soils in Campuestohan (Part of Negros Forest and Ecological Foundation Inc. site in the watershed that supplies water for Bacolod City residents; also suspected of being high in Cd by USLS researchers, implicated for the high incidence of breast cancer) and in Valencia, Negros Oriental STUDY SITE 5: Negros (VISAYAS)
STUDY SITE 5: Negros (VISAYAS) • 403 Plant and soil samples collected from five sampling sites with support and participation from USLS • 184 specimen belong to 25 Families and 30 Genera • characterization and for chemical analysis after two trips • Networking resulted to training for the University of St. La Salle faculty, students and staff in plant collection and vegetation analysis. Cross visits from USLS to the DLSU Manila Herbarium began. Database sharing discussions started. • Training Kit and Plant Collection Starter Kit provide to USLS
Samples were collected from copper, iron, gold mining sites and a gold processing facility. STUDY SITE 6: Compostela Valley (MINDANAO) SAMPLING SITES Metalliferous Barangay Tupaz (gold mining site) Barangay Pamintaran (copper mining site) Barangay Cambagang (Iron mining site) New Katipunan (Poblacion) in a gold processing facility Non-metalliferous soils Mt. Candalaga Brgy Tupaz (gold) Sitio Salaysayon, Brgy Cambagang (iron)
Although multiple minerals (polymetals) are mined in Maragusan, Compostela Valley, all mining activities are small scale operations. Margusan LGU officials and employees assisted in the collection of data and providing security services. Purok Centennial, Brgy New Katipunan (Poblacion) – gold processing facility Brgy Pamintaran (copper mining site)
STUDY SITE 6: Compostela Valley (MINDANAO) • 192 Plant and soil samples were collected from five sampling sites • 112 specimens belong to 28 Families and 41 Genera • Characterization / chemical analysis • Networking was done with Maragusan LGU municipal officials, agencies (e.g. Municipal Office of Tourism) and employees who participated in data collection and providing security to researchers • Another trip is necessary to collect more samples from the non- metalliferous soils in Mindanao Mining activities in Maragusan, Compostela Valley are well regulated (based on interviews) by an LGU that is keen on developing Maragusan as an ecotourism destination. Fewer fatalities in mining communities were experienced in Maragusan (compared to Diwalwal) despite devastation from typhoon Pablo. Contract growing of bananas serve as viable alternative to extractive activities.
YEAR 1 OUTPUTS Objectives 1 and 2 * A database (that is accessible and useful as reference to the mining sector, restoration scientists and citizens) of bioindicator, hyperaccumulator plant species naturally occurring in metal rich (or ultramafic soils) and other metalliferous soils including those from mining sites; and an extensive database of bioindicator hyperaccumulator, obligate and facultative plant species in the six study sites * Description of the gross morphological, morphometric and physiological characteristics of obligate and facultative metallophyes, including bioindicator hyperaccumulator species, as well as associated non-metallophyte species submitted.
Summary Update of Website Development • DLSU BRAHMS Database functional; database data entry on-going • Website structure, site-protocol of use already approved • Website development 60% complete
Summary Update of Website / Database Development • 546 records (DOST specimens) • 2920 records (DLSUH) • 426+ photos
Summary Table of number of samples and plant species collected Study Site Sampling Site Species Plant Samples Marinduque Island Bocboc 9 21 Kapayang 4 7 Putting Buhangin 16 33 Pili 25 64 Torrijos 11 22 Mt. Malindig 16 31 Rapu Rapu Island Akal 11 29 Lumang Bisita 26 50 Binosawan 23 53 Napulingan 41 117 Bulusan 5 Kaka 15 31 Cebu Island Lutopan 43 75 Negros Basay 48 119 Bulata 49 104 Sipalay 78 163 Campuestuhan 9 17 Compostela Valley Tupaz 52 85 New Katipunan 8 12 Cambagang 27 49 Pamintaran 29 48
Plant Species (or Genera Families Samples Specimens) Marinduque 178 81 37 29 Rapu-Rapu 280 121 36 29 Cebu 75 43 11 13 Negros 403 184 30 25 Compostela Valley 194 116 41 28 Total 545 SUMMARY TABLE OF PLANT SAMPLE AND SPECIES COLLECTED
PRELIMINARY CEBU DATA
Plants Collected from Toledo, Cebu Pityrogramma calomelanosDicranopteris linearisBlechnum orientale Aglaomorpha sp.Nephrolepis sp. Pteridium aquilinum
Plants Collected from Toledo, Cebu Acacia mangium Melastoma sp.
Fe Cu Cd Pb Zn 10,000.00 300.00 100.00 1,000.00 3,000.00 SCIENTIFIC NAME P LANT PART Pityrogramma calomelanos Shoots 904.93 244.21 6.99 1,224.97 231.07 Roots 625.15 426.00 2.10 1,286.29 67.61 Lycopodiella cernua Shoots 339.58 35.06 2.06 1,371.83 76.29 Roots 261.44 137.31 4.36 1,473.30 223.80 Pteridium aquilinum Shoots 272.52 9.09 0.18 4.33 28.50 Roots 238.26 18.68 0.90 1.36 82.51 Dicranopteris linearis Shoots* 350.70 86.76 1.70 23.55 42.24 Roots* 327.62 13.69 0.43 5.91 Melastoma malabathricum Shoots 171.03 3.67 25.53 1,635.34 217.14 Roots 418.85 252.84 2.62 574.27 245.47 Nephroplepis sp. Shoots 112.82 2.07 2.85 114.82 Rhizome 471.47 2.19 175.63 84.60 Metal concentation (PPM) in shoots and roots of plants from Toledo Cebu
Potential Bio-indicator species from Toledo Cebu Species Part Cu Content (ppm) Where collected Soil (Cu ppm) Pityrogramma calomelanos Roots 426.0001947 Biga pit ( T3 ) 119.2051158 Roots 439.6257528 Biga pit ( T2, T3) 88.62031393 Rachis 56.64817975 Biga pit ( T2, T3) 88.62031393 Rachis 162.7965458 Biga pit ( T1) 149.195 Leaves 48.60686138 Biga pit ( T1) 149.195 Nephrolepis sp. Roots and Rhizome 183.5180723 Biga pit ( T3) 1.2625 Rachis 391.702861 Biga pit ( T3) 1.2625 Leaves 7.139545665 Biga pit ( T3) 1.2625
Pityrogramma calomelanos – Cu Hyperaccumulator species may be facultative Nephrolepis sp. Is another potentially the facultative Cu bioindicator species Potential Copper Bio-indicator Plants from Cebu
Comparison of plants collected from metalliferous soils (top) and nonmetalliferous soil (bottom) in Cebu Curling, irregular leaflets and reddening can be observed in plant from Biga Pit bench Plants (ferns) collected from Sudlon forest
Nephrolepis sp. Nephrolepis sp. Nephrolepis sp. is a potential facultative bio-indicator fern species showing adaptation to high copper mining soils with the curling of pinna (leaflets) and the irregularity or gaps in sori.
Nephrolepis sp. Showing pinna curling Pteris melanocaulon showing irregularities (presence of gaps) in the sori Gross morphological adaptations in ferns observed in field collected plant samples
PRELIMINARY MARINDUQUE DATA
TABLE OF COPPER CONTENT IN PPM IN ABOVE AND BELOW GROUND BIOMASS OF PLANTS AND SOIL SPECIES NAME BELOW and ABOVE GROUND BIOMASS Cu Content (PPM) WHERE COLLECTED SOIL Cu Content (PPM) BIOCONCENTRATION FACTOR TRANSLOCATION FACTOR EFFICIENCY FACTOR Leucas sp. 37.53096819 Torrijos Gramineae sp. 2 2.398289956 Torrijos 0.8544843852.049301319 Nephrolepis sp. 369.3270021 Mogpog Capayang 1-2 230.678075 1.601049437 0.995011505 1.59306261 367.4846163 Menispermaceae sp. 1 137.3846012 Mogpog Capayang 1-2 230.678075 0.595568526 0.244174086 0.145422401 33.54575946 Nephrolepis sp. 200.1990217 Putting Buhangin 151.3404368 1.322838931 1.327241385 1.755726576 265.7124269 Cratoxylon sp. 98.59229079 Putting Buhangin 153.3404368 0.642963414 0.490459635 0.315347602 48.355539 Poaceae sp. 1 47.07820109 Putting Buhangin 154.3404368 0.3050283 0.471688328 0.143878289 22.20623794 Leea sp. 41.46679881 Putting Buhangin 155.3404368 0.266941433 0.854064387 0.227985171 35.4153161 Neonauclea / Nauclea sp. 134.8937079 Putting Buhangin 156.3404368 0.862820334 0.943233271 0.813840845 127.2362333 Pteris vitata 116.1459159 Putting Buhangin 157.3404368 0.738182239 0.32774156 0.241932998 38.06584362 Fabaceae sp. 1 29.05497946 Putting Buhangin 157.3404368 0.184663142 Melastoma sp. 28.70955746 Putting Buhangin 157.3404368 0.182467763 1.105713391 0.201757048 31.74454213 Alstonia macrophylla 45.11502414 Putting Buhangin 158.3404368 0.284924212 0.717498058 0.204432569 32.3699422 Hoya madulidii 45.23100193 Putting Buhangin 159.3404368 0.283863926 1.215948832 0.345164009 54.99858397 Pteris ensiformis 65.9190372 PB 4 0.373532693 24.6229155 Tectaria hilocarpia 29.82320241 PB3 1.06457417 28.01420816 1.015397734 28.44556349 30.28241215 Desmodium triflorum 58.11715481 PB1 0.593097593 97.98919357 Fabaceae sp. 1 135.7048375 Capayang 0.6878879193.34971701 Cyperaceae sp.1 517.621933 Capayang 0.17478438290.47222992 Poaceae sp. 2 179.3970966 Capayang Typha sp. 95.54948272 Capayang 0.38310423436.6054114 Acrostichum aureum 52.10701214 Pili site 1
TABLE OF COPPER CONTENT IN PPM IN ABOVE AND BELOW GROUND BIOMASS OF PLANTS AND SOIL SPECIES NAME BELOW and ABOVE GROUND BIOMASS Cu Content (PPM) WHERE COLLECTED SOIL Cu Content (PPM) BIOCONCENTRATION FACTOR TRANSLOCATION FACTOR EFFICIENCY FACTOR Nephrolepis sp. 369.3270021 Mogpog Capayang 1-2 230.678075 1.601049437 0.995011505 1.59306261 367.4846163 Nephrolepis sp. 200.1990217 Putting Buhangin 151.3404368 1.322838931 1.327241385 1.755726576 265.7124269 Cyperaceae sp.1 517.621933 Capayang 0.17478438290.47222992 POTENTIAL BIO-INDICATOR SPECIES FROM MARINDUQUE
Pteris melanocaulon Dicranopteris linearis Potential bio-indicator species of fern commonly found in copper mining soils, definitive characterization (of being hyperaccumulators) follows results of chemical analysis from other sites. OTHER NOTEWORTHY OBSERVATIONS
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Atypical curling of leaves observed in ubiquitous herbs
Reddening only at the base of petioles or leaf sheath was initially observed in plants collected from metalliferous soils. Pityrogramma calomelanos Piper sp. Eleusine indica
Psidium guajava Atypical reddening patterns observed in guava leaves Melastoma sp. Observations of the fruit of
Yellowing of Oryza sativa Cocos nucifera showing stunted growth Stunted growth observed even at reproductive maturity
PROJECT OBJECTIVE 4: Establish a protocol and a training kit to build the capacity of environmental managers and stakeholders to detect heavy metal contamination in soils using bio-indicator species. Also establish a network of DOST partner institutions and La Salle affiliated schools; as well as provide training to network members in the identification, monitoring, propagation and conservation of hyperaccumulator species in the six sites. More specifically to: 4.1 Train personnel of partner institutions in the collection of taxonomic data, plant samples, seeds or propagules, and engage them in monitoring and in the conservation of hyperaccumulator species in the six sites.
OBJECTIVE 4: Establish a protocol and a training kit to build the capacity of environmental managers and stakeholders to detect heavy metal contamination in soils using bio-indicator species. Also establish a network of DOST partner institutions and La Salle affiliated schools; as well as provide training to network members in the identification, monitoring, propagation and conservation of hyperaccumulator species in the six sites. More specifically to: 4.2 Develop a mechanism for cooperation and information sharing with partner institutions (academic, LGUs, GOs, NGOs) to sustain the network of institutions focused on monitoring and the conservation of hyperaccumulator and other noteworthy plant species in the six sites.
YEAR 1 OUTPUT Objective 4 A Network of DOST partner institutions and De La Salle University affiliated schools within the vicinity of the study sites which will participate in the completion of the project. A protocol and training materials for environmental managers to recognize bio-indicator plant species
SUMMARY OUTPUT ON NETWORKING • Network is in place, network members include La Salle Schools (3); SUCs (2); NGO; Church based PO; LGUs and NCIP (6) • Training of partners conducted in all six sites completed • Network partners have participated in the collection of data in the six sites • Networking protocol already tested in six sites • Training manual already drafted, printer already contacted • Instructional Video on proper plant collection post –production being completed • Restoration Research Group of DLSU graduate and undergraduate students formed; presented papers ( 12)
STUDY SITE INSTITUTIONAL PARTNER Kalinga (Luzon) Kalinga State University LGUs (Pasil, Balbalan) NCIP Marinduque (Luzon) Marinduque State College LGU (3 Barangays) Rapu-rapu (Luzon) Local church PO (SISK) Divine World College Cebu (Visayas) De La Salle Andres Soriano Memorial College, Carmen Copper Corporation (CCC) Environmental Unit Negros (Visayas) University of St. La Salle, Bacolod City, NGOs (2) Compostela Valley (Mindanao) Maragusan LGU municipal official, LS (Bislig, Illigan, Osamis)
STUDY SITE 1: Kalinga (LUZON) INSTITUTIONAL PARTNER: Kalinga State University “Rice fields in Tabuk turned hard and white from the Balatoc mining activities in Pasil and the wastes draining into the Chico River” - Dr. Eduardo Bagtang, KSU President “The people killed the manager of Balatoc to stop the mining ” - Mailani Bilabo, AO NCIP Kalinga Provincial Office
INSTITUTIONAL PARTNER: Marinduque State College STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON) Training and Plant Collection Starter Kit provided MSC
Networking with the Barangay Captains of Capayang, Pili, and Bocboc, Marinduque
Herman Ombao, faculty member of MSC came to DLSU, Manila to receive hands-on training on Plant Collections Management Cross visitation and training opportunities provided
“Are you pro mining or anti mining?’ - Nora Onate, Mayor of Rapu-Rapu “tinatanong kami ng mga tao kung taga mina daw kayo at baka raw nabayaran na kami” - Lucas Balbin, Field Guide and SISK Officer STUDY SITE 3: Rapu-Rapu Island, Albay (LUZON) INSTITUTIONAL PARTNER: Sagip Isla, Sagip Kapwa, a Church-Based People’s Organization
INSTITUTIONAL PARTNERS: De La Salle-Andres Soriano Memorial School and Carmen Copper Corporation (CCC) STUDY SITE 4: Cebu (VISAYAS)
Training provided to participating teachers of ASMC and the Environmental Unit of CCC
Networking with DENR Cebu (part of the National Clonal Forestation Project) in Balamban and Cammita Inc. NGO
INSTITUTIONAL PARTNER: University of Saint La Salle, Bacolod STUDY SITE 5: Negros (VISAYAS)
Training was provided USLS volunteer researchers
USLS students, faculty and staff joined data collection
INSTITUTIONAL PARTNERS: Maragusan Local government Agencies - MENRO and the Municipal Tourism Office STUDY SITE 6: Compostela Valley (MINDANAO) “Ah dahil may mga halamang tumutubo (sa discharge pond) ibig sabihin safe din sa tao” - Foreman, Gold Processing Facility
De La Salle - St John Bosco College, Bislig La Salle Academy, Illigan ACADEMIC PARTNERS VISITED IN MINDANAO La Salle University, Ozamis
Training Protocol through lectures and hands-on training methods • Introduction of the Project and the Program • Discussion of levels of participation • Plant collection Techniques • Field and Laboratory Safety • Plant Identification Techniques • Field Work and Field Documentation • Sample Processing
TRAINING AND STARTER KIT PROVIDED PARTNERS CONTAIN: • Books on Plant Identification; or pictorial guide books for the initial identification of the plant collected in their vicinity / area • Basic plant collecting equipment like pruning shears • Basic Herbarium sheet preparation supplies like standard size Bristol Board • Plastic box / container for all the items and to serve as an example storage container (correct size) for herbarium sheets (properly preserved identified plants used as reference.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES The ultimate goal is to: help build the partner institution’s capacity to establish its own research (and teaching) collection (herbarium and living) of local plants in the area. Going beyond the project time horizon, these institutions become the “go to” authority on the plants within their biogeographic or geopolitical areas. Any future questions on the identity of plants (non-ornamental or non-food plant, especially metallophytes) can then be resolved in consultation with experts from national or international plant collection centers (like the Philippine National Museum). The practical goal is to: help institutions develop their own herbarium, or at the very least, learn to collect and preserve plants in a manner that renders the specimens “identifiable” or in a way that plant taxonomists at the Philippine National Museum or the DLSU System can identify
LESSONS LEARNED • people request for plant to be identified by sending photographs or sending plants improperly collected (missing important parts) or those not properly dried/preserved (decomposing or crumbling in plastic bags) • unless hands-on training and actual field collections are conducted, little of the information on proper plant collection and identification is retained • details of simple techniques/procedures on scientific plant collection and vegetation analysis can be taught more effectively through experiential learning
LESSONS LEARNED • questions on where to buy supplies used in collecting, drying and preserving plant specimen (herbarium preparation) always arise • Feedback from trainees is that on their own, procedures and details of procedures for collecting plants can easily slip their minds without any guidebook or, even more useful, a reference video (like a how-to cooking video for scientific plant collection)
OUTLINE OF A GUIDEBOOK (PART 1) FOR COLLECTING PLANTS FOR RESEARCH ON METALLOPHYTES AND BIO-INDICATOR PHYTOTECHNOLOGY MODULE 1: VEGETATION SURVEY TECHNIQUES Grassland Vegetation Analysis (Transect, Quadrat Methods) Forest Vegetation Analysis (PCQM, Plot, Permanent Plot Methods) MODULE 2: PLANT SPECIMEN COLLECTION FOR TAXONOMY AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH Plant Specimen Collection for Taxonomy and Molecular Research Herbarium Curation and Management MODULE 3: SOIL AND PLANT CHARACTERIZATION Soil Sampling and Chemical Analysis Chemical Analysis of Plant Samples Morphological Description of Plants Molecular Analysis PART II: IDENTIFICATION AND PROPAGATION OF METALLOPHYTES USED AS BIO-INDICATOR, PHYTOREMEDIATION, PHYTOMINING AND REFORESTATION SPECIES
Training / Teaching Video on Plant Collection Techniques (a Production Update) * Professional Videographer / Director contracted * Production, and script completed * Graphic and animation approaches / styles designed * Outdoor and indoor shooting conducted * Rough cut reviewed * editing and post-production continues * professional audio dubbing to be scheduled
ENGAGING DLSU STUDENTS, ACADEMIC COMMUNITY AND THE PUBLIC TO STUDY THE USE OF PHYTOTECHNOLOGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION
Ecological Restoration Research Group formed and monthly colloquia held to monitor and review student research on phytotechnologies
STUDENT RESEARCH TOPICS RELATED TO BIO-INDICATOR AND PHYTOREMEDIATION PHYTOTECHNOLOGIES UNDER THE ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION GROUP Caspe, Marixel (PhD Student) Underlying mechanism of metallophyte adaptation to metalliferous soils in Manicani Island, Eastern Samar Matulac, John Mark (MS Biology Candidate) Effects of varying concentrations of copper sulfate on the gametophyte and sporophyte development of Pteris melanocaulon Fee collected from Marinduque Island, Philippines Bautista, Mary Ann (MS Biology Candidate) Morphological and molecular analysis of Philippine Phyllantus species Cruz , Abigail and Tan, Gladys (BS Biology Students) Effect of varying copper sulfate concentrations on the growth of Curcuma zedoaria and Ipomoea batatas Villa, AJ (BS Biology Student) Effects of varying copper sulfate concentrations on the growth of Colocasia sp.
At the DLSU Science and Technology Research Congress March 9, 2013 At the Australasia Conference on Ecosystem Restoration (by Dr. Agoo) July, 2013 • Presented to nationwide teachers participating in SIGWA project on setting up weather stations in schools , August, 2013 • Presented at the Biodiversity Conservation, the Key to Restoration, Resilience and Sustainability Symposium and Focused Group Discussion at DLSU August 17, 2013 MEETING WITH NETWORK MEMBERS (PARTNER INSTITUTIONS) PLANNED FOR MAY (2014) TO DISCUSS YEAR 1 PROGRESS REPORT AND FINDINGS OF THE PROJECT PRESENTATIONS OF THE BIO-INDICATOR PCIEER-DOST AND DLSU PROJECT AT MEETNGS • Presented at Round Table Discussion with Dr. Satria, of Mining Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia , 27 June 2013 at DLSU
AND IN YEAR 2 THE GOAL IS: THROUGH AN ASSAY (OR BY GROWING THE PLANTS IN POTS) DETERMINE THE RESPONSE OF SELECTED PLANT SPECIES TO KNOWN CONCENTRATIONS OF HEAVY METALS UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS AND PREPARE FOR GOAL IN YEAR 3 TO: DETERMINE HOW TO PROPAGATE BIO-INDICATOR SPECIES FOR POTENTIAL USE IN THE FIELD FOR DETECTION OF CONTAMINATION AND/OR POSSIBLY FOR CLEAN – UP (PHYTOREMEDIATION)
OBJECTIVE 3: Determine the plasticity in the morphological and physiological responses and adaptations (or tolerance) of selected facultative species exposed to varying concentrations of heavy metals through a pot experiment. More specifically to: 3.1 Monitor selected facultative species to determine reproductive phenology in order to collect seeds or cuttings to propagate them. 3.2 Expose test plants to varying levels of metals to determine tolerance (germination, survival and growth) to increasing concentrations of heavy metals.
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