Published on February 26, 2014
Diversity of Modern Life
Kingdom Monera (“Monerans”) • Smallest and simplest lifeforms • Unicellular (one-celled) • no nucleus • Bacteria and cyanobacteria
Bacteria • Three basic shapes: • round (cocci) • rod (bacilli) • spiral (spirilli)
Questions • What are two characteristics of the organisms in Kingdom Monera? • What is meant by unicellular? • What are the three shapes of bacteria?
Kingdom Protista(“Protists”) • Single-celled or multicellular • more complex than organisms in Kingdom Monera • nucleus • protozoans (animal-like) • algae (plant-like)
Protozoans • Kingdom Protista • no cell wall or chlorophyll • internal digestion • no locomotion (some)
Algae • Cell walls • Chlorophyll • Photosynthetic • Placed in groups according to color and structure
Questions • What are some characteristics of Protists? • What are the two types of Protists? • How are the two types of Protists different?
Kingdom Fungi • Multicellular; complex • cell walls, no chlorophyll • Threadlike fungi (bread mold) • club fungi (mushrooms) • sac fungi (yeast and mildew)
Questions • What are some characteristics of Fungi? • What are the three groups of fungi?
Kingdom Plantae • Multicellular, cell walls, and chlorophyll • Largest and longest-living things on Earth • Vascular or Nonvascular
Nonvascular Plants • CANNOT conduct water • Example: Moss • Moist environment
Vascular Plants • CAN conduct water • Capable of living in drier areas • Club mosses, Ferns, Horsetails, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms
Gymnosperms • Seed plant • name means “naked seed” • Most are conifers
Angiosperms -Flowering Plants • Seed plant • name means “covered seed” • Seeds are produced inside ovaries • A ripened ovary is a fruit • largest/most diverse plants
Questions • What is the major difference between a gymnosperm and an angiosperm? • What are three plant characteristics? • How are vascular and non vascular plants different?
Sponges (invertebrate) • Simplest of the animal groups • lives in salt water attached to the bottom • Hollow central cavity • Two layers of body cells with tiny pores
Coelenterates (invertebrate) • Jellyfish, hydras, and corals • two cell layers • Live in water • hollow body with a single opening
Questions • What are three similarities between coelenterates and sponges?
Flatworms (invertebrate) • Flattened body; mostly parasitic • one body opening • two eyespots (light detection) • Turbellarians (free-living) • Planarians (freshwater Turbellarians)
Roundworms (invertebrate) • Rounded shaped • two body openings (eating and waste expulsion) • mostly free-living • Ex: Nematodes and hookworms
Segmented Worms (invertebrate) • Rounded, segmented bodies • two body openings • has five hearts and a brain • Ex: leeches and marine tube worms
Questions • In what major way are the three types of worms different? • How are the segmented worms MOST similar to the roundworms?
Mollusks (invertebrate) • Soft-bodies, no shell: (octopus/squid) • well-developed organs • some with shells: (clams/oysters)
Arthropods (invertebrate) • Largest group of animals • multiple body segments • jointed appendages (legs/arms) • exoskeleton (hard outer covering)
Arthropods (continued) • Well-developed organs • insects, lobsters, crabs, and spiders
Echinoderms (invertebrate) • Spiny skinned animals • star fish (sea stars), sand dollars, sea cucumbers • flexible arms; tube feet • known for regeneration (ability to grow new body parts)
Questions • What is the major similarity between mollusks, echinoderms, and arthropods? • Which group of organisms are known for regeneration? • What is regeneration?
Questions • What is the largest group of animals? • Describe an invertebrate. • An octopus and a clam belong to what group of invertebrates? • How is an endoskelton different from an exoskeleton?
Vertebrates • Have backbones • body with a head and most have appendages • endoskeleton (internal skeleton for support/protection)
Vertebrates (continued) • Endotherm (warm- blooded); these organisms can control their body temperature from within despite changes in the environment
Vertebrates (continued) • Ectotherm (cold-blooded); body temperature changes with the environment
Questions • What is the difference between an ectotherm and an endotherm? • How is a vertebrate different from an invertebrate?
Jawless fishes • Ex: Sea lamprey • mouth is used for sucking fluids; no appendages (fins) • flexible skeleton made of cartilage • ectotherms
Cartilaginous Fishes • Two pairs of fins; gills • ectotherms • strong teeth (sharks) • SKELETON MADE OF CARTILAGE • stingrays, skates, sharks
Bony fishes • Flounder, eels, trout, and others • SKELETON MADE OF BONE • gills • streamlined bodies (narrow shape) • most numerous group of fish
Questions • How are the cartilaginous fishes mainly different from the bony fishes? • What do the other fishes have that the jawless fishes do not have?
Amphibians • Frogs, toads, salamanders • part of their life is spent on land and part of life is spent in the water; (ectotherms) • smooth, moist skin • gills when they are young and have lungs as adults
Reptiles • Adapted to live on land (terrestrial) • breathe with lungs • body covered with plates or scales • ectotherms
Reptiles • Dinosaurs • Turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and alligators • lay eggs in a leathery shell
Birds • Bodies adapted for flight (light, bones, feathers, and wings) • Scaly legs and feet • lay eggs in a hard shell • endotherms
Mammals • Advanced nervous system; highly developed brain • Endotherms • Hairy bodies • can occupy several habitats • give birth to live young;
Questions • Which animals spend part of their life on and part of it in the water? • What type of animals have scales or or hard plates?
Questions • Which two groups of animals are warm-blooded? • What is the difference between the eggs of reptiles and birds?
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