Published on March 5, 2014
DIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISM AMIT SHARMA MTCS BHATTU MANDI
Classification Science of arranging organisms in series of groups and subgroups on the basis of their similarities and dissimilarities. Aristotle classified organisms on the basis of their habitat means the place where they live, in water, in air and on land.
Basic characteristics of classification • Nature of Cells: prokaryotic or eukaryotic • Cellularity: unicellular or multicellular • Level of organization: cellular, tissue, organ and organ system • Mode of nutrition: autotrophic or heterotrophic
Classification and Evolution • Time is the key factor which helps in development of complex organisms from the simple ones. • Charles Darwin firstly gave the idea of evolution in 1859 in his famous book ‘The Origin of Species’. • Those organisms which have ancient body design and not changed much are called Primitive organisms. • Those who acquired certain special characters during the time period are known as advanced or higher organisms.
Biodiversity • Biodiversity is the term used for the various forms of life found in a given area. • These life forms depends on each other and on the environment and results in a stable community. • Human also is the part of this biodiversity. • It is estimated that there is about 10,000,000 species on this planet, we know only about 20,00,000 species.
Hierarchy of classification • Ernst Haeckel, Robert Whittaker, Carl Woese have tried to classify all living organisms into broad categories. • R. Whittaker proposed five kingdom system which is widely used. This kingdom includes Monera, Protista, Fungi, plantae and Animalia. • Carl Woese divided Monera into Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.
Further classification Further classification is done by naming the sub groups at Various levels as given: Kingdom→PhyllumDivison→Class→Order →Family→Genus→Species •Kingdom •Kingdom •Kingdom •Kingdom •Kingdom Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
Kingdom: Monera • Unicellular organisms. • Nucleus and cell organelles are absent. • May or may not have cell wall. • Autotrophic or heterotrophic. • Able of nitrogen fixation. • Reproduce by asexual methods. • Bacteria, cyanobacteria and mycoplasma
Kingdom: Protista • Unicellular organisms. • A well defined nucleus and cell organelles are present. • They may be autotrophic or heterotrophic. • Some of these organisms have appendages like cilia and flagella for movement. • They reproduce by both sexual and asexual methods. • Diatoms, protozoans are few examples
Kingdom: Fungi • Heterotrophic eukaryotic organisms. • Saprophytes. • Cell wall made of chitin. • Some of them live in close relationship with certain algae and plants forming Lichens and Mycorrhizae. • Some of them have the ability of being multicellular. • Yeast, Mushroom and Rhizopus
Kingdom: Plantae • They are multicellular eukaryotic organisms. • This kingdom includes all the plant species. • They are autotrophic and prepare their own food. • They are further classified into five major divisons
Divison: Thallophyta • Body of the organisms is not differentiated into organs. • Mainly aquatic found in marine and fresh water. • Tissue for conduction of material and for mechanical strength is absent. • They are covered by mucilage. • Reproduce by vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction. • Algae are example of this divison.
Divison: Bryophyta • Plant body is differentiated into leaf, root and stem like structures. • Special conducting tissues are not present. • These are known as amphibians of plant kingdoms. • Reproduce by vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction. • Funaria, Anthoceros and Marchantia are few examples.
Divison: Pteridophyta • Plant body is differentiated into leaf, stem and roots. • They also have conductive tissues. • All the above discussed plant types doesn’t bear seeds instead they bear spores. They are also known as cryptograms. • They require water for the purpose of reproduction. • Fern, Adiantum and Selaginella.are few examples
Divison: Gymnosperms • These plants bear naked seeds mean seeds are not enclosed in fruits. • These are perennial, evergreen trees having woody trunk. • They bear cones in which seeds are placed. • Sequoia sempervirens is the largest tree found on earth (125 Meters) is an example. Other examples are Pinus, Cycas.
Divison: Angiosperms • Bear seeds covered by special organs known as fruits. • They bear flowers as their reproductive organs. • Embryo in seed has special structure called cotyledons which act as seed leaves at the time of germination. • They are divided into two groups: Monocots and Dicots. • Wheat, Rice, Rose and Tomato are examples of this divison.
Kingdom: Animalia • • • • • Main characteristics of this kingdom are as follows: These are eukaryotic organisms of heterotrophic nature. These are multicellular organisms. Their cells do not bear cell walls and chloroplasts. They are further subdivided into following categories:
Phyllum: Porifera • These animals bear small holes on their body surface. • They are aquatic and sedentary means non motile. • They have cellular level of body design. • They bear hard external skeleton and have a canal system for the distribution of food and gases. • Spongilla and Sycon are the examples.
Phylum: Coelentrata • They are aquatic animals and have tissue level of body design. • They have a body cavity called coelom so named as coelentrata. • They may be solitary or colonial. • They have special stinging cells called cnidoblasts so also known as Cnidaria. • Hydra, Obelia and Physalia are few examples.
Phylum: Platyhelminthes • Show bilateral symmetry and are triploblastic mean have three germ layers. • They are dorsoventrally flattened so also called flatworms. • They are either free living or parasitic. • They have tissue level of body design. • They do not have any body cavity • Planarian and Liver flukes are examples
Phylum: Nematoda • These animals show bilateral symmetry and are triploblastic mean have three germ layers. • They are cylindrical in shape. • They have a pseudocoelom. • They have tissue level of body design. • They are mainly parasitic in nutrition. • Ascaris and Wuchuraria are examples.
Phylum: Annelida • Show bilateral symmetry and are triploblastic. • They are cylindrical in shape and have a true body cavity. • Organ system level of body design is found. • Body is divided into small segments called annuli so phylum is also known as Annelida. • They found in both land and water. • Earthworm and Leech are examples.
Phylum: Arthropoda • These animals show bilateral symmetry and are triploblastic mean have three germ layers. • They have a true body cavity which is blood filled. • Organ system level of body design is found. • Open circulatory system is found in these animals. • Largest group of animals. • They have jointed legs. • Cockroach, Housefly, Butter fly are examples
Phylum:Mollusca • Body cavity is highly reduced • These animals show bilateral symmetry and are triploblastic mean have three germ layers. • They also have open circulatory system. • They have kidney like structure for excretion. • A highly muscular foot is used for movement. • Pila and Chiton are examples
Phylum: Echinodermata • They are spiny skin organisms. • They are free living animals found only in marine water. • They are triploblastic and have true body cavity. • They have a tube system for the purpose of movement. • They show high power of regeneration. • Starfish and Sea urchin are examples
Phylum: Protochordata • These animals show bilateral symmetry and are triploblastic mean have three germ layers. • They are cylindrical in shape and have a true body cavity. • They also have a notochord at any stage of life which provide surface for the attachment of muscles and to provide support. • Amphioxus, Balanogloss us.
Phylum: Vertebrata • They have notochord at any stage of life. • They have a dorsal nerve cord. • They are triploblastic. • They have paired gill pouches. • They have true body cavity. • They includes classes: Pisces, Amphibia, Rept ilia, Aves and Mammalia
Class: Pisces • They are aquatic found in fresh and marine water. • Skin is covered by scales or plates and have gills for respiration. • Body is streamlined and has a tail. • They have two chambered heart and are cold blooded. • Skeleton is made up of either cartilage or of bone. • Scoliodon and Labeo rohita.
Class: Amphibia • They are animals with uncovered skin which help in gas exchange. • They have three chambers in heart and are cold blooded. • They are found in both water and on land. • They lay eggs without any hard shell. • Frog and Salamanders.
Class: Reptilia • They are terrestrial as well as aquatic. • Skin is covered by scales. • They are cold blooded animals mostly having three chambers in heart except crocodile. • Their eggs are covered by a hard shell. • They breathe through lungs. • Snakes tortoise.
Class : Aves • They have four chambers in heart and are warm blooded. • They breathe through lungs. • They lay eggs covered by hard shells. • Their body is covered by feathers and are very good fliers. • They do not have teeth and bear beak and claws. • All the birds are examples.
Class : Mammalia • They have four chambers in heart and are warm blooded. • They breathe through lungs. • They have mammary glands for the production of milk. • They have hairs and nails as well as sweat and oil glands. • They give birth to young ones except Platypus and Echidna. • All the milk producing animals including humans
Need for Nomenclature: • To solve the problem of many names for any organism in different areas. Such as Lady Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) is known by Bhindi, Gumbo in different countries. • To solved out the confusion occurred by the common names of some organisms. Such as Silver fish, Cuttle fish are example of arthropods and mollusks respectively, but the name produce confusion that they belongs to class Pisce.
How to write Scientific Names • Carlous Linnaeus introduced the system of providing unique names to each organism. • Few rules are proposed for naming that are following: 1. Name should be given in Latin language. 2. Name of Genus begins with capital letter. 3. Name of the species begins with small letter. 4. The scientific name should be written in italics when printed and should be underlined separately when hand written. • Such as the name for Humans is “Homo sapiens”, for Lion is “Panthera leo”.
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