Dispensing of ointment and cream

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Information about Dispensing of ointment and cream
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Published on March 14, 2014

Author: pcteidf

Source: authorstream.com

PowerPoint Presentation: Ointments and Creams Vikrant Saluja Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences PCTE Group of Institutes, Ludhiana Punjab, India PowerPoint Presentation: Ointments and creams Topical products intended for application on the skin or accessible mucous membranes to provide localized and sometimes systemic effects at the site of application. Also used for treating ophthalmic, nasal, buccal, rectal, and vaginal ailments. Various categories of drugs - antibacterials, antifungals, antivirals, antipruritics, local anesthetics, anti-inflammatories, analgesics, astringents, and mydriatic agents are incorporated into these products. Also used in non-therapeutic conditions for providing protective and lubricating functions eg cold cream and vanishing cream. The design of a semisolid preparation is based on its ability to adhere to the surface of application for a reasonable duration before they are washed or worn off.  - brought about by a plastic rheologic behavior PowerPoint Presentation: Ointments and Creams Ointments are semisolid preparations intended for topical application. Creams are basically ointments which are made less greasy by incorporation of water. Presence of water in creams makes them act as emulsions and therefore are sometimes referred as semisolid emulsions. Hydrophilic creams contain large amounts of water in their external phase (e.g., vanishing cream) and hydrophobic creams contain water in the internal phase (e.g., cold cream). Creams are softer than ointments and are preferred because of their easy removal from containers and good spreadability over the absorption site. PowerPoint Presentation: General Uses Of Ointments and creams Acts as protective or protectant – serve as physical barrier to environment Acts as emollient – softens skin 3. Carrier of medicament - vehicle PowerPoint Presentation: Classification of Ointment Bases The USP and NF classify ointment bases into four general groups 1. Hydrocarbon bases or Oleaginous bases Absorption bases Water removable bases Water soluble bases Hydrocarbon bases: Hydrocarbon bases Oleaginous bases Emollient effect Occlusive dressing Difficult to wash-off/remove Is greasy and can stain clothing. Hydrocarbon bases: Hydrocarbon bases Petrolatum, USP Yellow petrolatum/petrolatum jelly/yellow soft paraffin White petrolatum, USP Decolored petrolatum/white soft paraffin , White petroleum jelly/white vaseline Yellow ointment, USP Yellow wax (5%, w/w), petrolatum (95 %), yellow hard paraffin White ointment, USP White wax/white petrolatum, white hard paraffin Mineral oil / liquid paraffin — Useful as levigating agents to wet and incorporate solid substances PowerPoint Presentation: Petrolatum It is an inert material obtained from petroleum, which contains branched and unbranched hydrocarbons. It is available as soft oily material and appears pale yellow to yellow in color. The presence of minor impurities can oxidize petrolatum and discolor the product - Butylated hydroxyanisole, Butylated hydroxytoluene, or α – tocopherol Minor quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impurities in petrolatum sometimes cause hypersensitivity reactions. Substituting yellow soft paraffin with white soft paraffin reduces such reactions Absorption bases: Absorption bases Those that permit the incorporation of aqueous solution resulting in the formation of w/o emulsions Emollient Occlusive Absorbs water Greasy Example : Hydrophiic petrolatum Anhydrous lanolin (Wool fat) Beeswax Those that are w/o emulsion Emollient Occlusive Contains water, absorbs additional water Greasy Examples: Hydrous Lanolin Cold cream USP - PowerPoint Presentation: Yellow Wax /yellow beeswax Obtained from honey combs. It is practically insoluble in water and melts at 61 – 65 ° C. It is used in the preparation of hydrophobic ointments and water - in - oil creams because of its viscosity - enhancing properties. Concentrations up to 20% are used for producing ointments and creams. Lanolin Refined, decolorized, and deodorized material obtained from sheep wool. Available as a pale yellow, waxy material with a characteristic odor. Used for preparation of hydrophobic ointments and water - in – oil creams. Prone to oxidation , antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene are generally used. Although lanolin is insoluble in water, it is miscible with water up to 1 : 2 ratio. Lanolin and some of its derivatives are reported to cause hypersensitivity reactions Hydrous Lanolin Incorporation of about 25 – 30% of water into lanolin gives hydrous lanolin. It is available as a pale yellow, oily material with a characteristic odor. The water uptake capacity of hydrous lanolin is higher than lanolin It is used for preparing topical hydrophobic ointments or water - in – oil creams with larger aqueous ph ase. Water-removable bases: Water-removable bases Water-washable bases, O/W emulsion They are oil in water emulsions having an emulsifier which makes them readily miscible with water. Water-washable, easier to remove Non/less greasy Can be diluted with water Non/less occlusive Better cosmetic appearance Better compliance Example Hydrophilic ointment, USP Water-soluble bases: Water-soluble bases Unlike other bases they contain only water soluble components Water - soluble bases do not contain any oily or oleaginous phase. Water soluble and washable Non-greasy Non/less occlusive Lipid free Synthetic base Example: Polyethylene Glycol PowerPoint Presentation: Polyethylene Glycol /Macrogol PEGs are hydrophilic materials and are extensively used in the preparation of hydrophilic ointments and creams. They are non irritants and are easily washed from skin surfaces. They are available as liquids or solids based on molecular weight. PEGs 600 or less are liquids , whereas PEGs above 1000 are solids. Their viscosity increases with increase in molecular weight. PEG liquids are usually clear or pale yellow in color. Solid PEGs are usually white in color and available as pastes, waxy fl akes, or free - flowing solids based on their molecular weight. Products with varying consistency are prepared by mixing different grades of PEGs. PowerPoint Presentation: Selection of an appropriate base Depends on: Type of activity desired (e.g., topical or percutaneous absorption). Compatibility with other components. Physicochemical and microbial stability of the product. Ease of manufacture Pourability and spreadability of the formulation Duration of contact. Chances of hypersensitivity reactions. Ease of washing from the site of application. PowerPoint Presentation: Method of Preparation The methods of manufacturing semi solid dosage forms are: Incorporation or Trituration method - Incorporation involves simple mixing of base and other components over an ointment slab using a stainless steel ointment spatula. Fusion method A fusion process is employed only when the components are stable at fusion temperatures. Chemical reaction method Emulsification method PowerPoint Presentation: Incorporation Involves simple mixing of base and other components over an ointment slab using a stainless steel ointment spatula. Uniform mixing can be obtained by the geometric dilution procedure, which usually involves stepwise dilution of solids into the ointment base. Small quantities of powders are incorporated into hydrocarbon bases with the aid of a levigating agent . The finely divided powdered material is levigated thoroughly with a small quantity of ointment base to form a concentrate. Levigating agents such as mineral oil (for oleaginous bases) and glycerin (for aqueous bases) are used to form smooth dispersions. The concentrate is then diluted geometrically with the remainder of the base until a uniform mix is achieved. PowerPoint Presentation: Fusion Process The process of fusion uses heat to melt all or some of the components of the ointment; the mixture is then allowed to cool with constant stirring until congealed. Additional components of the ointment preparation that were not subject to the initial melting process are added to the congealing mixture as it is being cooled and stirred. Once congealed, the mixture is rubbed with a spatula or mortar and pestle (on a small scale) or allowed to pass through an ointment roller mill (on a large scale) to ensure a uniform and smooth texture. Some common examples of components that are subjected to the fusion process include beeswax, paraffin, stearyl alcohol, and highmolecular- weight polyethylene glycols (PEG). The order of addition of components - In general, the way to mix all components together is to choose the component with the highest melting point and use the minimum amount of heat to melt it. Subsequently, all the other components may be added with constant stirring and cooling of the melt until the mixture is congealed. PowerPoint Presentation: Permeation enhaner or accelerants Increases the rate of absorption of topically applied drugs Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) Dimethyl formamide (DMF) Dimethyl acetamide (DMA) Urea Propylene glycol SAA – anionics > cationics > nonionic PowerPoint Presentation: CREAMS “Viscous liquid or semisolid emulsions for application on skin and mucous membrane” Creams May Be: MEDICATED NON-MEDICATED PowerPoint Presentation: Types of Creams: Water in oil or oily creams : Contain w/o emulsifier EXAMPLES: COLD CREAM Oil in water or aqueous creams: Contain o/w emulsifier EXAMPLES: VANISHING CREAM HYDROCORTISONE CREAM Gels: Gels Semisolid system consisting of small or large molecules in an aqueous liquid vehicle rendered jelly like by the addition of a gelling agent. Gelling agents: carbomer 934, cellulose derivatives (carboxymethyl-cellulose) and natural gums (tragacanth) Single-Phase Gels Macromolecules uniformly distributed throughout a liquid Example: Na CMC and Tragacanth gel Two-Phase Systems Gel mass consists of floccules of small distinct particles Example: Milk of Magnesia (often referred as magma) Characteristics of Gels Thickens on standing, forming a thixotrope, shaken before use to liquefy the gel and enable pouring Remain fairly uniform upon standing and does not readily settle because of high degree of attraction between the dispersed phase and water medium. PowerPoint Presentation: Uses of Gels Lubricant for catheters Bases for patch testing Examples: NaCl gel for electrocardiography Floucinonide Gel for anti-inflammatory corticosteroid Na Fluoride & Phosphoric acid gel - dental care prophylactic Tretionoin Gel for treatment of acne PowerPoint Presentation: PASTES Pastes maybe defined as ointments incorporating a high percentage of insoluble particulate solids, sometimes as much as or more than 50%. High amount of insoluble particulate matter renders a stiffness to the system and makes them more absorptive. Because of the stiffness, they remain in place after application and are used effectively to absorb serous secretions. Examples of insoluble ingredients serving as the dispersed phase include starch, zinc oxide, and calcium carbonate.

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