Disorders of adrenals

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Information about Disorders of adrenals
Health & Medicine

Published on March 27, 2014

Author: mprasadnaidu

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Adrenal glands and disorders

M.Prasad Naidu MSc Medical Biochemistry, Ph.D.Research Scholar

Disorders of adrenal glands Hyperactivity:- 1. Cushing’s syndrome 2. Hyperaldosteronism 3. Adrenogenital syndrome Hypoactivity:- 1. chronic adrenal insufficiency:Addison’s disease 2. acute adrenal insufficiency: Addisonian crisis or Adrenal crisis 3. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Cushing’s syndrome A disorder characterized by obesity due to hypersecretion of GCs. Causes:- Due to excessive secretion of GCs. Particularly due to oversecretion of cortisol If it is due to pituitary origincushing’s Di If it is due to adrenal origin cushing’s Sy

Pituitary origin(cushing’s disease) ↑ of ACTH causes secretion of GCs↑ Elevation of ACTH secretion occurs due to 1. Tumor in pituitary cells particularly in basophils which secrete ACTH. 2. cancer of lungs 3. hypothalamic disorder causing CRF↑

Adrenal origin(cushing’s syndrome) Increased secretion of Cortisol occurs in the following conditions. 1. Tumor in zona fasciculata of A.cortex. 2. carcinoma of adrenal cortex. 3. Treatment with excessive dose of ACTH which stimulates A.cortex excessively. 4. Treatment with excessive GCs can also cause Cushing’s syndrome.

symptoms there is redistribution of fat in abnormal manner (pot belly) Obesity affecting the face The muscles become weak bcos of protein depletion. Osteoporosis develops and bones become susceptable to fracture. Hyperglycemia  due to gluconeogenesis Hyperglycemia leads to glucosuria and adrenal diabetes. Hypertension.

Addison’s disease Causes:- failure of a.cortex to secrete corticosteroids occurs due to the following: 1. atrophy of A.cortex due to autoimmune diseases 2. destruction of the gland during TB 3. destruction of hormone secreting cells in A.cortex by malignant tissues. 4. congenital failure to secrete cortisol 5. failure of anterior pituitary 6. lesion in area of hypathalamus where corticotropin releasing hormone is produced.

Signs and symptoms Pigmentation of skin & mucus membrane Muscular weakness Hypotension Hypoglycemia Nausea, vomitting & diarrhea (if prolonged leads to dehydration & loss of body wt.) Susceptibility to any type of infection and Inability to withstand any stress ↓cardiac output and decreased workload of the heart leading to decrease in the size of heart.

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