Published on March 27, 2014
M.Prasad Naidu MSc Medical Biochemistry, Ph.D.Research Scholar
Disorders of adrenal glands Hyperactivity:- 1. Cushing’s syndrome 2. Hyperaldosteronism 3. Adrenogenital syndrome Hypoactivity:- 1. chronic adrenal insufficiency:Addison’s disease 2. acute adrenal insufficiency: Addisonian crisis or Adrenal crisis 3. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Cushing’s syndrome A disorder characterized by obesity due to hypersecretion of GCs. Causes:- Due to excessive secretion of GCs. Particularly due to oversecretion of cortisol If it is due to pituitary origincushing’s Di If it is due to adrenal origin cushing’s Sy
Pituitary origin(cushing’s disease) ↑ of ACTH causes secretion of GCs↑ Elevation of ACTH secretion occurs due to 1. Tumor in pituitary cells particularly in basophils which secrete ACTH. 2. cancer of lungs 3. hypothalamic disorder causing CRF↑
Adrenal origin(cushing’s syndrome) Increased secretion of Cortisol occurs in the following conditions. 1. Tumor in zona fasciculata of A.cortex. 2. carcinoma of adrenal cortex. 3. Treatment with excessive dose of ACTH which stimulates A.cortex excessively. 4. Treatment with excessive GCs can also cause Cushing’s syndrome.
symptoms there is redistribution of fat in abnormal manner (pot belly) Obesity affecting the face The muscles become weak bcos of protein depletion. Osteoporosis develops and bones become susceptable to fracture. Hyperglycemia due to gluconeogenesis Hyperglycemia leads to glucosuria and adrenal diabetes. Hypertension.
Addison’s disease Causes:- failure of a.cortex to secrete corticosteroids occurs due to the following: 1. atrophy of A.cortex due to autoimmune diseases 2. destruction of the gland during TB 3. destruction of hormone secreting cells in A.cortex by malignant tissues. 4. congenital failure to secrete cortisol 5. failure of anterior pituitary 6. lesion in area of hypathalamus where corticotropin releasing hormone is produced.
Signs and symptoms Pigmentation of skin & mucus membrane Muscular weakness Hypotension Hypoglycemia Nausea, vomitting & diarrhea (if prolonged leads to dehydration & loss of body wt.) Susceptibility to any type of infection and Inability to withstand any stress ↓cardiac output and decreased workload of the heart leading to decrease in the size of heart.
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