Disorders due to macro and micro nutrients deficiency

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Information about Disorders due to macro and micro nutrients deficiency

Published on March 16, 2014

Author: bhawnakargeti

Source: slideshare.net

DISORDERS DUE TO MACRO AND MICRO NUTRIENTS DEFICIENCY Group 1: FOOD AND NUTRITION PRESENTATION BY: Bhawna, Harshita, Kanika, Kritika.

MACRONUTRIENT Macronutrient are the classes of chemical compounds humans consume in the largest quantities and which provide bulk energy.

MICRONUTRIENT Micronutrients are nutrients required by humans and other organisms throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate a range of physiological functions. They include dietary trace minerals in amounts generally less than 100 milligrams/day

DEFICIENCY DISEASES

VITAMINS

Common vitamins Sources Deficiency diseases A (retinol) milk, butter, cheese, eggs, chicken, kidney, liver, fish oils. Night blindness; reduced hair growth in children; loss of appetite; lowered resistance to infection; dry eyes. B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B6 (pyridoxine) B12 (cobalamin) Bananas, Broccoli, Dates, Dairy products, Fish, Figs, Nuts, Seeds, Spinach, Pulses, Potatoes. Beriberi, Anxiety, hysteria. Visual problems, Ariboflavinosis. Pellagra, mouth sores. Anemia, convulsions. Pernicious anemia; nerve damage. C (ascorbic acid) Citrus fruits, Spinach, Peas, Lemons, Strawberries, Pears, Lime, Chicken, Seafood, Pork. Scurvy, Muscle weakness, bleeding gums. D (calciferol) Corn flakes, Mashed potatoes, Dairy products, Dark green leafy vegetables, Milk, Yogurt, liver, kidneys, Eggs, Salmon. Rickets in children, bone softening in adults, osteoporosis. E (alpha- tocopherol) Tomato, Spinach, Berries, Salmon, Whole grain products, Nuts, Olive oil, Sunflower oil. nerve abnormalities, low birth weight babies. K Meat, Liver, Egg yolk, Whole grain, Parsley, Peas, Cabbage, Cucumbers, Broccoli, Soybean. Defective blood coagulation.

MINERALS

Common minerals Sources Deficiency diseases Calcium Milk and milk products; canned fish with bones (salmon, sardines); fortified soy milk; broccoli, mustard greens; legumes. Osteoporosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Teeth deformation, Pain in Bones. Iron Organ meats; red meats; fish; poultry; egg yolks; legumes; dried fruits; dark leafy greens; iron-enriched breads and cereals. Anemia, Short Breath, Poor Memory, Sore Tongue/Mouth. Iodine Seafood, iodized salt, bread, dairy products. Goiter, Hypothyroid, Hair Loss. Zinc Meats, fish, poultry, leavened whole grains, vegetables. Acrodermatitis Enteropathica, Hyposmia. Magnesium Nuts, seeds; legumes; leafy green vegetables; seafood; chocolate. Muscular Weakness, Abnormal Heart Rhythm, Poor Memory, Insomnia. Potassium Meats, milk, fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes. Hypokalemia, muscular weakness, paralysis, mental confusion. Chromium Unrefined foods, especially liver, brewer's yeast, whole grains, nuts, cheeses. High Blood Pressure, High Cholesterol, Diabetes Type 2 (High Blood Sugar) Sodium Table salt, soy sauce; large amounts in processed foods; small amounts in milk, breads, vegetables, and unprocessed meats. Hyponatremia, digestive disorders, memory loss, fatigue, weakness.

CARBOHYDRATES

FROM WHERE DO YOU THINK JIMMY HAS GOT THE ENERGY TO PLAY ALL DAY LONG?

Carbohydrates are necessary to your health, because every cell in your body uses them for energy. In fact, your brain can only use carbohydrates for energy. Unfortunately, over consumption of sugar and other highly refined carbohydrates has been associated with a higher incidence of diabetes and Cardiovascular disease. Carbohydrates are high-fibre foods, which improve your digestion. Some examples of healthy foods containing complex carbohydrates are: Spinach, bread and Oats. Simple carbohydrates are more refined, are usually found in foods with fewer nutrients, and tend to be less satisfying and more fattening. Some examples of foods containing simple carbohydrates are: Coke®, Pepsi®, Mountain Dew®, etc.

Carbohydrate Deficiency Diseases It is not good to have a large intake of carbohydrates but long term elimination of carbohydrates can cause serious health issues. Some diseases caused by a deficiency of carbohydrates are : Reduces Stamina: A diet deficient in Carbohydrates causes a marked reduction of endurance (almost 50%) Ketosis : the body starts using the proteins and convert it to sugars . This causes ketosis which is nothing but the accumulation of ketones in the body. Excess of ketones lead to water loss and removal of sodium from the body. This may lead to tiredness and lethargy. MWod Wings: a lack of dietary carbohydrates causes the brain to stop regulating serotonin, a hormone formed in the pineal gland. Serotonin is responsible for suppressing appetite , uplifting a person’s moods and also functions as a tranquilizer. Low serotonin supply causes depression by altering the person’s mood. Usage Of Fat As Fuel Source: Low carbohydrate in our diet causes the fat reserves to be used as fuel source.

FATS

Fats are concentrated source of food energy. They are also the source of linoleum acid, an essential nutrient, and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.

TYPES OF FATS

Saturated fats are the only fatty acids that raise blood cholesterol levels. Saturated fats are found in meats and whole dairy products like milk, cheese, cream and ice cream. Chocolate Butter and margarine in meat and dairy products are all especially high in saturated fat. SATURATED FATS

UNSATURATED FATS Unsaturated fats are usually liquid at room temperature. They are found in most vegetable products and oils. Eating too much of these types of fat may also make us gain weight.

TRANS FAT Trans fats are produced when liquid oil is made into a solid fat. This process is called hydrogenation. Trans fats act like saturated fats and can raise your cholesterol level. Sources of Trans fat include: 1)Processed foods for e.g. snacks such as lays and chocolate and baked goods such as muffins, cookies and cakes with hydrogenated oil or partially hydrogenated oil. 2) Stick margarines. 3) Some fast food items such as French fries.

There are many diseases that can come from fat. Their deficiency increases the risk of getting affected by Cancer, Atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, behavioral problems, depression, cognitive decline and chronic inflammation. Be sure to get yourself on a healthy diet and reduce the risk of getting these fat-related diseases. Fats Deficiency Diseases a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials such as cholesterol and triglyceride. Atherosclerosis: Cognitive Decline: It is rapid ageing. A disease in which a waxy substance called plaque (plak) builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle. Coronary Heart Disease: A long lasting inflammation (weeks or months) due to persistent aggressive stimuli and is characterized by: active inflammation with mononuclear cells, tissue destruction and repair. It can follow acute inflammation or can be chronic right from the beginning. Chronic Inflammation:

PROTEINS

Proteins are needed for building the structure in the cells and in the formation of tissues and organs. They are needed for the growth of the body to repair damaged parts such as cuts on the skin and to replace tissues that are constantly being worn away such as the lining of the mouth.

Deficiency Diseases Of Proteins A lack of proteins in the body can lead to protein deficiency diseases particularly in children which can prove fatal. Some diseases caused by lack of protein include Marasmus, Kwashiorkor and Cachexia. Marasmus: When infants below one year of age are weaned from breast milk and their diet is replaced with less nutritive food, they may develop a condition called Marasmus. This is signified by a sudden, massive reduction in body weight. Further, the body tissues begin to waste away, the brain weight reduces, the ribs become visible through the skin, and digestion is affected resulting in the growth of the belly. Hair and skin are affected. The skin becomes shriveled, the body becomes frail and weak, the face looks gaunt and the eyes appear sunken. The development of the brain is affected and this condition may result in mental retardation. Kwashiorkor: Due to the cause mentioned above, a child aged 1 - 3 years may develop this condition known as Kwashiorkor. This is evident in signs such as irritability, and patchy, cracked and scaly skin. It results in stunted growth of the child, thinning of the body, curving of the legs and is also marked by bulging eyes.

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