Disease protection, biological control, Indigenous Knowledge, arid areas, Rajasthan, India, enzymes, peroxidase, phenylammonia lyase, 1, 3 beta glucanase

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Information about Disease protection, biological control, Indigenous Knowledge, arid...
Technology

Published on November 11, 2009

Author: Arpur

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Indigenous Knowledge is being used by arid zone farmers from the time immemorial to protect their crops from various diseases and pests. The use of Raw cow milk is validated through scientific experimentation using standard methods and it was found that it worked nicely when used with other biocontrol agents as seed treatment as well as spray treatments. The phenomenon of induced resistance was evident in the results obtained.

DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIC FARMING ARUN KUMAR Central Arid Zone Research Institute Jodhpur-342003, India LCD DM

A susceptible host , a virulent pathogen and favourable environment is essential Manipulating environment to discourage pathogen is grower’s best tools to prevent or minimize disease Interactions of temperature and moisture affect disease development Field sanitation; Crop and Cultivar; Cultivation Practice; Crop rotation; Mixed and intercropping; Fertilization; Irrigation and seed treatments affect disease occurrence

A susceptible host , a virulent pathogen and favourable environment is essential

Manipulating environment to discourage pathogen is grower’s best tools to prevent or minimize disease

Interactions of temperature and moisture affect disease development

Field sanitation; Crop and Cultivar; Cultivation Practice; Crop rotation; Mixed and intercropping; Fertilization; Irrigation and seed treatments affect disease occurrence

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT

Traditional Fungicides Collar rot of bottle gourd Asafoetida Damping-off of cotton Ash with castor oil Cuscuta of Lucerne Ash with common salt Powdery mildew of cumin & mustard; white rust and downy mildew of mustard Ash Disease Management Traditional Fungicides

CULTURAL PRACTICES Checks spread of aphids and DMs Restrained Irrigation Suppression of sooty mould and insect of cotton Flooding Reduces cumin wilt, DM of Isabgol, mustard-wheat rotation in Rabi & Pearl millet in Kharif Crop Rotation Reduce soil-borne diseases of pearl millet with legumes, sesame and cucurbits Fallowing for 2-years Minimize crop losses in drought, soil crusting, pest and diseases Multiple cropping: Mixture sowing (7:1:1:1) of pearl millet with legumes, sesame and cucurbits

INPUTS, LABOUR REQUIREMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY OF TRADITIONAL PRACTICES FOR MANAGING DISEASES Yes High Low Deep plowing Yes High High Ash dusting Yes High Low Multiple cropping Yes High Low Fallowing Yes Low Low Crop rotation Yes Low Low Mixture planting Yes Low Low Adjusting planting time Sustainable? Labour requirement External inputs needed Traditional practices

MANAGEMENT OF CHILLI DISEASES: Leaf curl disease Die-back

Leaf curl disease

Die-back

Rajasthan is the 6 th largest producer in India Jodhpur region produces 42.7% red chilli on 20,000 ha of land Jodhpur district alone contributes 20% of total production of red chilli in the State Popular chilli cvs: Mathania Red, Mehsana, Haripur-Raipur and Mandoria Continued.. BACKDROP

Rajasthan is the 6 th largest producer in India

Jodhpur region produces 42.7% red chilli on 20,000 ha of land

Jodhpur district alone contributes 20% of total production of red chilli in the State

Popular chilli cvs: Mathania Red, Mehsana, Haripur-Raipur and Mandoria

Continued..

Large and fleshy fruits, mild pungency and brilliant red colour with rich spicy flavour Susceptible to diseases like LCD and die-back or ripe fruit rot Green Fruit Yield of chilli 140 1991 - 2004 600 Before 1990 Fruit Yield (Kg -ha ) Year

Large and fleshy fruits, mild pungency and brilliant red colour with rich spicy flavour

Susceptible to diseases like LCD and die-back or ripe fruit rot

Green Fruit Yield of chilli

SYMPTOMS Curling of upper leaves with shortened internodes Severely infected plants produce clusters of reduced sized leaves with fewer flowers and fruits Small sized fruits are produced with deformed seeds LCD of chilli Small sized fruits Clusters of reduced size leaves

Curling of upper leaves with shortened internodes

Severely infected plants produce clusters of reduced sized leaves with fewer flowers and fruits

Small sized fruits are produced with deformed seeds

Farmers extensively use a number of insecticides to protect the crop from LCD Use of pesticides has failed to minimize the losses. Causes environmental pollution, resistance in insect vectors and health hazards EXISTING MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

Farmers extensively use a number of insecticides to protect the crop from LCD

Use of pesticides has failed to minimize the losses.

Causes environmental pollution, resistance in insect vectors and health hazards

BIO-CONTROL AGENTS Bio-control agents have emerged as a new method of managing plant diseases. Different botanicals (Plant spp.), animal products and other materials such as ash, cow urine and dung, fish meal and milk etc. Rhizobacteria (PGPR), leaf proteins, proline and Trichoderma spp. reduce diseases in many plant species manipulating host plant's physical and biochemical properties

Bio-control agents have emerged as a new method of managing plant diseases.

Different botanicals (Plant spp.), animal products and other materials such as ash, cow urine and dung, fish meal and milk etc.

Rhizobacteria (PGPR), leaf proteins, proline and Trichoderma spp. reduce diseases in many plant species manipulating host plant's physical and biochemical properties

USE OF MILK IN PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT Indigenous ancient tool against plant diseases Amino acids viz. proline, isoleucein and phenyl alanine in milk induce resistance against plant diseases Phenolic anti-microbials are also present Potassium phosphate content strengthens host immune system against diseases

Indigenous ancient tool against plant diseases

Amino acids viz. proline, isoleucein and phenyl alanine in milk induce resistance against plant diseases

Phenolic anti-microbials are also present

Potassium phosphate content strengthens host immune system against diseases

TREATMENT   (T 1) Treated chilli seeds with RCM (1:1) for 24 hrs  Dried in shade  Treated these seeds with Trichoderma viride ( @ 6g -kg seed)  Nursery soil treated with T. viride (@ 10gm 2 ) after mixing with FYM  Seed sowing in nursery  45 DAS roots of plant saplings were dipped in RCM (15% or 1:6) for 20 min. before transplanting  20 DAS RCM (15%) sprayed on the transplanted plants FARMER’S PRACTICE (T 2) Most of these practices are chemical sprays with or without seed treatment

Chilli-root-dip treatment with RCM (1:9)

On-farm management of LCD (Pooled data of 2002-04) Treatment LCD Incidence (%) Protection over FP (%) T 1. Seed Treat. with RCM and T. viride )+ RCM root dip + nursery soil treat. of T. viride and RCM sprays on transplanted plants     19.4     48.4 T 2. Farmer’s Practice     37.6     ---    

AVERAGE YIELD PARAMETERS OF CHILLI IN TWO TREATMENTS * T1 . Seed treatment with RCM (50% dilution with water for 24 h) and Trichoderma viride (0.6%) with soil treatment with T. viride (10g m -2 ) mixed with FYM T2 . Farmer’s Practice # more than 0.5 kg ha -1 increase Treatment *   Plant height (cm) Root length (cm) No. of fruits plant -1 (g) Fruit size (cm) Fruit wt. plant -1 (g) Yield plot -1 Kg -1   Length Width T 1 66.3 20.2 66.4 10.4 4.5 306.2 3.32# T 2 57.5 13.9 40.1 9.2 3.9 219.4 2.72

ON-FARM LCD MANAGEMENT IN CHILLI Treatment Farmer’s Practice

 

WE LOVE MILK Inspired farmers

MANAGEMENT OF PEARL MILLET DOWNY MILDEW Downy Mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola is a national problem Major limiting factor of pearl millet production in all millet growing tracts Modern interventions are not cost feasible Tried alternative technology based on IK

Downy Mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola is a national problem

Major limiting factor of pearl millet production in all millet growing tracts

Modern interventions are not cost

feasible

Tried alternative technology based on IK

Raw cow’s milk and Gliocladium virens induced resistance Tried to amalgamate indigenous and modern technology Milk is a known abiotic inducer of resistance in susceptible plants Pre-sowing seed treatment of RCM and G. virens with soil application of G. virens Off- and On-farm studies provided encouraging results Achieved protection over control (up to 72.9%)

Tried to amalgamate indigenous and modern technology

Milk is a known abiotic inducer of resistance in susceptible plants

Pre-sowing seed treatment of RCM and G. virens with soil application of G. virens

Off- and On-farm studies provided encouraging results

Achieved protection over control (up to 72.9%)

DOWNY MILDEW CONTROL BY GLIOCLADIUM VIRENS & RCM Pre-treatment of pearl millet seed with RCM & 0.6% fungus Soil application (10gm -2 ) with FYM Isolation of roots of treated plants Provided 48% protection over FP

Pre-treatment of pearl millet seed with RCM & 0.6% fungus

Soil application

(10gm -2 ) with FYM

Isolation of roots of treated plants

Provided 48% protection over FP

Certain amino acids demonstrated to act as inducers of plant resistance against biotic or abiotic stresses in many host-pathogen systems (Buzi et al ., 2004) Besides inducing resistance these amino acids also enhance growth of plants and act as osmoprotectants (Hong et al., 1999; Ramos et al ., 2005) AMINO ACIDS AND PLANT DISEASE PROTECTION

Certain amino acids demonstrated to act as inducers of plant resistance against biotic or abiotic stresses in many host-pathogen systems (Buzi et al ., 2004)

Besides inducing resistance these amino acids also enhance growth of plants and act as osmoprotectants (Hong et al., 1999; Ramos et al ., 2005)

AMINO ACIDS AND PROTECTION (%) AGAINST DOWNY MILDEW 57 Methionine** * Niranjan Raj et al. (2004). Phytoparasitica 32: 523-527 . # Shetty et al . (2005). Proc. Global Confr., Nov. 25-29, RCA, Udaipur,p. 73. ** Sarosh et al . (2005). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 43: 808-815. 51 Tryptophan# 53 Serine# 55 Leucine# 57 Isoleucine# 67 Proline* % DM Protection Amino acid

HOW AMINO ACIDS ARE OFFERING PROTECTION ? Amino acid-mediated induced resistance works through activation of the phenylpropanoid pathway and accumulation of phenolic compounds (Shetty et al . 2005) Defense related enzymes comparable to the resistant cultivar are elicitated by L-methionine application through activation in chitinase, PAL, peroxidase , lipoxygenases, beta-1, 3-glucanase and chalcone synthase in pearl millet against downy mildew (Sarosh et al ., 2005).

Amino acid-mediated induced resistance works through activation of the phenylpropanoid pathway and accumulation of phenolic compounds (Shetty et al . 2005)

Defense related enzymes comparable to the resistant cultivar are elicitated by L-methionine application through activation in chitinase, PAL, peroxidase , lipoxygenases, beta-1, 3-glucanase and chalcone synthase in pearl millet against downy mildew (Sarosh et al ., 2005).

AMINO ACID CONTENT OF RAW COW’S MILK * 110 18 21 23 66 84 86 146 172 In RCM (mg- 100 ml. ) 326 197 202 261 330 171 268 165 731 In RCM (mg- 100 ml. ) * Payne-Botha, S. and Bigwood, E. J. (1959). Amino-acid content of raw and heat sterilized cow’s milk British J. Nutrition 13: 385-389 . Alanine Leucine Arginine Serine Cystine Valine Tryptophan Aspartic acid Glycine Hydroxyproline Histidine Phenylalanine Methionine Lysine Threonine Isoleucine Tyrosine Glutamic acid Amino acid Amino acid

AMINO ACIDS USED AGAINST DOWNY MILDEW Glutamic acid Proline Isoleucine Lysine Phenylalanine

Glutamic acid

Proline

Isoleucine

Lysine

Phenylalanine

INCIDENCE OF DM IN PEARL MILLET PLANTS TREATED WITH DIFFERENT AMINO ACIDS 87.5 12 Positive Control (Metalaxyl) 6 g kg -1 - 96 Neutral Control (DW) 55.2 43 L-Hydroxyproline 67.7 31 L-Phenylalanine 14.5 82 L- Lysine 65.6 33 L-Isoleucine 31.2 66 L-Glutamic acid % Protection % DMDI Amino acids

AMINO ACIDS SEED TREATMENTS AND ITS EFFECT DURING INDUCTION OF RESISTANCE AGAINST DM 5 DAY 4 DAY 3DAY 2 DAY 1DAY 69 69 67 49 26 Positive control - - - - - Neutral control 61 53 39 40 18 Hydroxyproline 71 66 41 22 27 Phenylalanine 24 24 22 22 15 Lysine 59 49 46 14 31 Isoleucine 22 22 14 11 11 Glutamic acid Spatio-temporal effect (% DM Protection) Amino acids

(μmol of trans -cinnamic acid mg -1 protein h -1 ) * T1-1:3, T2-1:6, T3-1:9, T4-1:12, T5- Neutral control T6- Positive control + DAS, Mysore 0.22 0.20 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.11 0.03 T6 0.35 0.24 0.21 0.14 0.13 0.08 0.06 T5 0.31 0.18 0.12 0.16 0.09 0.08 0.05 T4 1.36 0.92 0.82 0.69 0.45 0.36 0.13 T3 1.10 0.85 0.69 0.53 0.36 0.22 0.08 T2 0.71 0.70 0.50 0.38 0.22 0.03 0.05 T1 72 36 24 12 6 3 0 Hrs. Phenylammonialyase (PAL) activity + RCM * Treatmt.

EFFECT OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS ON DOWNY MILDEW INCIDENCE AND PEARL MILLET GROWTH 8.81 18.32 2.52 8.28 CD at 5% 15.6 84.2 10.4 -- 29.6 (22.5) Control 15.6 85.9 10.2 72.9 (48.4) 8.0 (11.6) Combination of above treats. 14.5 92.0 10.2 57.4 (38.6) 12.6 (13.8) Soil treat. with G. virens (10g m -2 ) 13.2 90.0 10.5 70.2 (42.2) 8.8 (13.0) S.T.of G. virens (6g kg -1 ) seed 12.1 75.1 10.5 57.4 (36.4) 12.6 (14.3) S.T.of RCM (1:1) for 18 h No. of tillers Plant height (cm) Root length (cm) Protection over control (%) Disease incidence (%) Treatment

EFFECT OF RCM DILUTIONS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING VIGOUR Of all the RCM dilutions 1:12 showed maximum percent germination followed by 1:9 and 1:6 dilutions Highest enhancement rate of vigour index (V.I.) was obtained with RCM 1:9 (1520) followed by 1:6 (1040)

Of all the RCM dilutions 1:12 showed maximum percent germination followed by 1:9 and 1:6 dilutions

Highest enhancement rate of vigour index (V.I.) was obtained with RCM 1:9 (1520) followed by 1:6 (1040)

New strategy for managing plant diseases Environmentally friendly Elicitors characteristically non-specific Induce general resistance effective against a range of pathogens Able to reduce the level of infection Elicitors enhance resistance in response to extrinsic stimulus without altering the genome Only metabolic changes in plants help in defending against infections Induced Resistance

New strategy for managing plant diseases

Environmentally friendly

Elicitors characteristically non-specific

Induce general resistance effective against a range of pathogens

Able to reduce the level of infection

Elicitors enhance resistance in response to extrinsic stimulus without altering the genome

Only metabolic changes in plants help in defending against infections

CONCLUSIONS Induced biochemical and molecular mechanisms of defense responses are generally correlated with enzymatic responses in plants PAL, being first enzyme in phenyl propanoid pathway plays a major role in plant defense In the current results PAL activity observed highest in susceptible RCM (1:9 and 1:6) treated pearl millet cultivar. PAL activity lead to induce resistance in RCM/ amino acid treated plants

Induced biochemical and molecular mechanisms of defense responses are generally correlated with enzymatic responses in plants

PAL, being first enzyme in phenyl propanoid pathway plays a major role in plant defense

In the current results PAL activity observed highest in susceptible RCM (1:9 and 1:6) treated pearl millet cultivar. PAL activity lead to induce resistance in RCM/ amino acid treated plants

CONCLUSIONS Peroxidase is a useful marker of plant development, physiology, infection and stress Current results show increase in PO activity in susceptible cultivar when treated with RCM and amino acids. PO contributes to resistance by oxidation of phenolic compounds in pearl millet. PO is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin that limits the extent of pathogen spread because of antimicrobial activity

Peroxidase is a useful marker of plant development, physiology, infection and stress

Current results show increase in PO activity in susceptible cultivar when treated with RCM and amino acids.

PO contributes to resistance by oxidation of phenolic compounds in pearl millet.

PO is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin that limits the extent of pathogen spread because of antimicrobial activity

Thank You

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