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Published on September 12, 2011

Author: Nguvananh_07b

Source: authorstream.com

DISCOURSE AS DIALOGUE : DISCOURSE AS DIALOGUE DISCOURSE TYPOLOGY : DISCOURSE TYPOLOGY Reciprocal v.s Non-reciprocal Reciprocal Interaction Prototype: face-to-face conversation 2. Non-reciprocal No interaction Prototype: a book by a dead author. Task : Task Put the following on the cline of reciprocal and non-reciprocal discourse. A TV news broadcast A letter A TV phone-in An inaugural address by a Head of State. A chat with your next door neighbour A lecture WORD ORDER : WORD ORDER There are many ways of saying the same thing: John ate fish and chips. It was John who ate fish and chips. What John did was eat fish and chips. The person who ate fish and chips was John. Fish and chips were eaten by John. Eating fish and chips is what John did. Fish and chips John ate. Fish is what John ate – and chips. John, he eats fish and chips. Task : Task Without changing information, rephrase these sentences: 1. The gardener wants to cut down those bushes this spring. 2. From the beginning of next month, most of the major banks in Britain will issue cheque cards featuring a colour hologram of William Shakespeare. WORD ORDER : WORD ORDER Can we select word order randomly? Do our choices have communicative function? A: What time did you leave the building? B: What I did at five thirty was leave the building. Task : Task Which version is discourse (appears in the Penguin edition) Version 1: It was in 1899 that Earnest Miller Hemingway was born in Oak Park, a highly respectable suburb of Chicago. Being a doctor was the occupation of his father, a keen sportsman. Of six children, Earnest was the second. Version 2: Earnest Miller Hemingway was born in 1899 at Oak Park, a highly respectable suburb of Chicago, where his father, a keen sportsman, was a doctor. He was the second of six children. INFORMATION STRUCTURE IN DISCOURSE : INFORMATION STRUCTURE IN DISCOURSE Given information (topic) precedes new information (comment). given new Given information: Previously mentioned in the text Inferable from the text or context Shared world knowledge of writer and reader. Hemingway was born in 1899 at Oak Park. INFORMATION STRUCTURE IN DISCOURSE : INFORMATION STRUCTURE IN DISCOURSE The reverse case will cause either BORDOM or INCOMPREHENSION. Hemingway is a man. A gene is what each part is called. The information needed to make a new plant or animal is carried by the genes. Its sex and what characteristics it inherits they decide. Stronger than others are some inherited characteristics. Theme (Topic) and Rheme (Comment) : Theme (Topic) and Rheme (Comment) - Theme: “focus of attention”, “point of departure” - Rheme: newsworthy information about the theme. 1. Passive constructions: change theme and rheme. Theme (Topic) and Rheme (Comment) : Theme (Topic) and Rheme (Comment) 2. Cleft sentences: to place special emphasis on new information. Pseudo-cleft sentence Cleft sentence Slide 12: Turn into a coherent text entitled “Paper”. You can change the order of information in the sentences. You can combine sentences, if necessary. The Chinese invented paper. The Chinese originally produced paper from plant fibres and rags. The Arabs introduced paper to Europe. This happened in the Middle Ages. Parchment had been the standard material for written and printed documents until then. Paper eventually superseded parchment. From the nineteenth century wood pulp was used to make paper. Plant fibre and rags continued to be used to make some kinds of paper. Waste paper is recycled to make most paper nowadays. In France they introduced the first machines for making rolls of paper. This happened in the eighteenth century. Early paper was hand made. Early paper consisted of single sheets. PATTERNS : PATTERNS PATTERNS : PATTERNS - The new information often becomes the given information of the next sentence. - The same topic is carried over and a new comment is made about it. - The comment may consist of more than one element. Only one of them is carried over. PATTERNS 1 : PATTERNS 1 topic (1) comment (1) topic (2) comment (2) topic (3) etc PATTERNS 2 : PATTERNS 2 2. topic (1) comment (1) topic (1) comment (2) topic (1) etc PATTERNS 3 : PATTERNS 3 3. topic (1) comment (1) + comment (2) topic (2) comment (3) topic (3) comment (4) Task : Task Identify THEME and RHEME and draw the pattern of theme and rheme for the letter below. 1) I’m sitting here at my desk writing to you. Outside my window is a big lawn surrounded by trees, and in the middle of the lawn is a flower bed. It was full of daffodils and tulips in the spring. You’d love it here. You must come and stay sometime; we’ve got plenty of room. Task : Task 2. As you will no doubt have been told, we have our own photographic club and darkroom. The club is called “Mononanor” and there is an annual fee of $5. The money goes towards replacing any equipment worn out by use, or purchasing new equipment. Monomanor runs an annual competition with prizes awarded at the garden party in the summer term. End-weight principle : End-weight principle Choose the sentence that is the best way of continuing the text. The ancient Egyptians buried their pharaohs in tombs called pyramids. In Giza, near Cairo, are the most famous pyramids. The most famous pyramids are in Giza, near Cairo. Slide 21: 2. Some pyramids are made of more than two million blocks of stone. They were dragged into place by teams of workers. Teams of workers dragged them into place. Slide 22: 3. The pyramids were built to house the body of the pharaoh. Inside each pyramid is a secret chamber. A secret chamber is inside each pyramid. Slide 23: 4. This is the tomb where the mummy of the pharaoh was laid. Robbers have stolen most of these mummies. Most of these mummies have been stolen by robbers. Slide 24: Sort the sentences into their correct order. What linguistic and non-linguistic clues did you use to help you do the task? Two years later his father took him to play at concerts in the great cities of Europe. Mozart wrote church music, opera and nearly 50 symphonies. The Austrian composer Mozart was a musical genius. He worked hard but earned little money and died very poor at the age of 35. He began writing music at the age of five. Match the two halves of these short authentic texts. What is the logical relation between the two parts of each text (additive, adversative, causal, temporal)? : Match the two halves of these short authentic texts. What is the logical relation between the two parts of each text (additive, adversative, causal, temporal)? Slide 26: Spot the lack of coherence in the text. What is the sentence that doesn’t fit in the text (Rogue sentence)? TORTOISE AND TURTLE Unlike other reptiles, tortoises and turtles have hard shells to protect their bodies. Tortoises are land animals. They live in warm countries and eat plant food. A tortoise cannot run away from an enemy. Instead, it tucks its head and legs into its shell. Some tortoises can live to be much more than a hundred years old – older than any other animals. Turtles live in the sea. Some seaweeds can be eaten. They have flatter shells than tortoises and use their legs as paddles for swimming. On land they are very clumsy.

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