discogenic lbp

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Information about discogenic lbp
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Published on December 17, 2007

Author: Funtoon

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Slide1:  DISCOGENIC PAIN Sherman Tran MD January 18, 2006 OUTLINE:  OUTLINE Anatomy Approach to LBP Discogenic LBP Herniated Nucleus Pulposus Annular Tear Treatment Non-Surgical Surgical Slide3:  Facet Joints: bear 20% of weight Discs bear 80% of weight Neural Foramen Anterior Longitudial Lig. Posterior Longitudinal Lig. Slide4:  Neuro Arch Slide5:  Proteoglycans APPROACH:  APPROACH PAIN GENERATORS POSTERIOR TO ANTERIOR DISCOGENIC LBP:  DISCOGENIC LBP Non-Radicular (Without Leg Pain) Radicular (With Leg Pain) Without Leg Pain (Axial Pain):  Without Leg Pain (Axial Pain) Annular Tear Degenerative Disc Disease With Leg Pain (Radicular):  With Leg Pain (Radicular) Disc Bulge, Protrusion, Extrusion, Sesquestration Neuro-Compressive Lesions TREATMENT:  TREATMENT Slide14:  NATURAL HISTORY of LUMBAR DISC DISEASE OUTCOME STUDIES OF NON-SURGICAL TREATMENTS vs SURGICAL TREATMENTS CLINICAL VIGNETTES NON SURGEONS vs SURGEONS:  NON SURGEONS vs SURGEONS WHEN DO WE NOT vs WHEN DO WE DO OPERATE? “TIMING HAS AN AWFUL LOT TO DO WITH THE OUTCOME OF A RAIN DANCE”:  “TIMING HAS AN AWFUL LOT TO DO WITH THE OUTCOME OF A RAIN DANCE” LUMBAR DISC DISEASE:  LUMBAR DISC DISEASE 60-80% Lifetime incidence of LBP Natural History has a highly favorable outcomes Innovative Technological Treatments Timing of Rain Dance NORMAL POPULATION:  NORMAL POPULATION 35% Healthy Male Volunteers have significant DDD Paajenan et al 90% people age >50 have DDD Miller et al Analogy between LBP and Gallstones DISABILITY:  DISABILITY 95% Patients return to work within 3 months Otherwise  Poor prognostic factor 20% return to work after 1 year of disability 2% return to work after 2 years of disability NATURAL HISTORY:  NATURAL HISTORY 62% Disc Herniation Resorp Over Time The Larger  The More Resorption Matsubara et al Large Compressive Discs are usually symptomatic and Respond well to surgery Large Discs also have a high rate of clinical improvement with non-operative treatment Saals et al RISK FACTORS:  RISK FACTORS Driving of motor vehicles, Sedentary occupation, Vibration, Smoking, Previous full-term pregnancy, Physical inactivity, Increased body mass, and a Tall stature Physical fitness is not preventative Physical fitness will improve outcome NON-SURGICAL:  NON-SURGICAL In 208 patients, 70% Improvement in 4 weeks 60% return to work in 4 weeks Weber et al In 64 patients, 90% satisfactory outcome in one year Saals et al In 168 patients, 86% satisfactory outcome in one year Bush et al SURGICAL:  SURGICAL Indications: Cauda Equina PROGRESSIVE Motor Loss Intractable Pain Surgical Outcome Weber et al:  Surgical Outcome Weber et al 126 Patients with Absolute Indications for Surgery Randomized to Surgery and Non Surgery 10 year follow-up Slide25:  At 1 year: 90% good outcome with Surgery as compared to 60% with Non-Surgery At 4 years: Surgery is slightly better (not statistical) At 10 years: Same for both groups Patients who met the indications for surgery:  Patients who met the indications for surgery Patients who were operated within 3 months had better outcome in 10 years Response to Transforaminal Epidural Injections correlated with positive surgical outcomes as high as 95% Stanley and Akkerveeke et al:  Response to Transforaminal Epidural Injections correlated with positive surgical outcomes as high as 95% Stanley and Akkerveeke et al .) “TIMING HAS AN AWFUL LOT TO DO WITH THE OUTCOME OF A RAIN DANCE”:  “TIMING HAS AN AWFUL LOT TO DO WITH THE OUTCOME OF A RAIN DANCE” Case #1:  Case #1 25 yo male with 2 days h/o LBP and right leg pain. Pain 8/10, 80% leg, 20% back Pain is debilitating and worsening SHOULD YOU? Narcotics, Oral Steroids, PT, reassurance MRI Referral for Physiatry Referral for Surgery Slide30:  MRI: L5/S1 6 mm disc herniation Case #1:  Case #1 WHAT I WOULD DO? Narcotics MRI Epidurals 90-95% chance of substantial pain reduction PT 5% chance of needing surgery Case #2:  Case #2 26 yo male with 2 days h/o LBP and right leg pain, predominantly 80% leg pain. Pain is debilitating Right foot and toe weakness YOU SHOULD DO? Narcotics, +/- Oral Steroids, Re-Evaluate Referrals for Physiatry Referrals for Surgery Case #2:  Case #2 MRI: 3mm Right Disc Protrusion Right foot drop is same Do Nothing Referral for Epidurals Referral for Surgery Case #2:  Case #2 Neurologically stable Young age Don’t know long term outcome for discectomy Excellent long term outcome for non surgery What I would do::  What I would do: Narcotics, Cox 2 Trial of epidurals Non-responsive  surgery within 3 months Aggressive intervention Control Pain Graduated and aggressive physical therapy Case #3:  Case #3 28 yo healthy male Onset: two weeks ago No incontinence Right foot weakness 4/5 Stable Neuro Exam MRI: 9 mm L5/S1 disc herniation What would you do?:  What would you do? Narcotics, +/- Oral Steroids, Re-Evaluate Referrals for Physiatry Referrals for Surgery Case #3:  Case #3 Disc protrusion larger than 8 mm has lower success rate with epidurals Disc sequestration however does well conservatively Surgery is the best option No long term outcome study Due to young age  art of medicine Case #3:  Case #3 Due to young age and acute nature Epidural Two additional Epidurals if continues to improve EMG/NCS 3 weeks after injury Aggressive exercise Surgery if course is protracted 70-80% will not need surgery Does the patient have the time for conservative care and willing to accept failure? “TIMING HAS AN AWFUL LOT TO DO WITH THE OUTCOME OF A RAIN DANCE”:  “TIMING HAS AN AWFUL LOT TO DO WITH THE OUTCOME OF A RAIN DANCE” Case #4:  Case #4 60-70 yo with axial low back pain for 2 years and vague intermittent leg pain. Usual medical history No cancer history Needs full work up, Labs, MRI, EMG’s NSAIDS, 6 weeks of PT Case #4:  Case #4 EMG is normal MRI: Moderate DDD at L4/5 and L5/S1, small disc bulge/protrusion at L4/5 L5/S1, Facet hypertrophy with mild foraminal narrowing and mild spinal stenosis Would You?:  Would You? Do nothing Refer patient to a Physiatrist What could a physiatrist do? Refer patient to a Spine Surgeon What would a spine surgeon do? Case #4:  Case #4 Physiatrist Trigger point injections Facet injections Epidurals Discograms CT Myelograms Surgeon Foraminotomy Decompressive Laminectomy Discectomy and Fusion Case #5:  Case #5 75 yo with 6 months h/o low back pain and bilateral buttock and leg pain. Usual medical problems Used to walk ½ hour. Now only two blocks Neurogenic claudication Better with rest Worse with ambulation Poor balance and clumsiness No incontinence Case #5:  Case #5 MRI: Spinal Stenosis at L4/5 and L5/S1. In conjunction with facet and ligamentum hypertrophy result in central and foraminal stenosis. EMG/NCS: 1. Normal, 2. Single level radiculopathy, or 3. Polyradiculopathy What would you do?:  What would you do? Surgery or NOT surgery? Modify lifestyle or Conservative Treatment or Epidural or Spinal Decompression What I would do?:  What I would do? If patient is healthy and active, we must do something! Epidurals are very effective Spinal decompression is very effective also. Has the best outcome of all spine surgeries. Case #6:  Case #6 40 yo professional with 2 years of intermittent low back pain and leg pain Acute exacerbation MRI: small disc protrusion at L5/S1 Non surgical approach EMG is normal Epidurals give partial relief Able to work but not satisfied with result Case #6:  Case #6 How far should we go with the work up? Discogram? Nucleoplasty, IDET, Surgery, Fusion???? Case #6:  Case #6 Exercise for 6 months  pain improves 2 years later  full activity, minimal pain Able to run on treadmill for one hour at 8.5 minute/mile. Able to play two sets of tennis at 4.0 level Not able to lift more than 20 lbs without pain Case #7:  Case #7 50 yo with 5 years h/o low back pain. No leg pain Has had all conservative measures PT, Chiropractic, Accupuctures, Herbals Pilates, Yoga Vicodin 6 tabs/day, Neurontin Norco Fentanyl patch Case #7:  Case #7 MRI: Disc dessication and disc bulge at L4/5 L5/S1 No spinal or foraminal stenosis Mild facet arthropathy Physiatrist #1:  Physiatrist #1 Trigger point injections Facet injections Epidural injections Discogram: Annular Tear at L4/5 with concordant pain Nucleoplasty IDET Intradiscal radiofrequency Patient becomes chronic Pain Physiatrist #2:  Physiatrist #2 Facet Injections Epidurals Exercise Program Patient is functional Physiatrist #3:  Physiatrist #3 Aggressive exercises Education and Psychological support Patient is able to manage pain and is functional Surgeon #1:  Surgeon #1 CT Myelogram Discogram Microdiscectomy L4/5 Exercise Program Patient has residual pain but functional Surgeon #2:  Surgeon #2 Two level interbody fusion at L4/5 and L5/S1 with pedicle screws Patient has residual pain Fusion at L3/4 Patient with more pain Spinal Cord Stimulator Epidural Pump Living with Pain. You are in control of your patient’s destiny:  You are in control of your patient’s destiny Large disc herniation does NOT always need surgery Neurologic loss is NOT an absolute indication for surgery Small disc bulge is NOT always normal Interventional pain management works but not 90% of the time Surgery does not have an 80% success rate Conservative treatment is reversible. Surgery is not. Take Home Points:  Take Home Points Stay conservative Think conservative Early intervention to reduce pain and return to activity Thorough work up but DON’T OVERTREAT Surgery: Cauda Equina, progressively neurologic loss, intractable pain Everything else: think NON-Surgical

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