Published on February 17, 2014
PRESENTED BY:- SHAINA SHARMA, M.N FINAL
DEFINITION OF DISASTER (W.H.O.): “An occurrence of a severity and magnitude that normally results in death, injuries and property damage that cannot be managed through the routine procedure and resources of government.” FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency): “ A disaster can be defined as an occurrence either nature or man made that causes human suffering and creates human needs that victims cannot alleviate without assistance.”
Definition of Disaster Nursing Disaster Nursing can be defined as the adaptation of professional nursing skills in recognizing and meeting the nursing physical and emotional needs resulting from a disaster. The overall goal of disaster nursing is to achieve the best possible level of health for the people and the community involved in the disaster.
‘DISASTER’ alphabetically means D - Destructions I - Incidents S - Sufferings A - Administrative, Financial Failures. S - Sentiments T - Tragedies E - Eruption of Communicable diseases. R - Research programme and its implementation
THE GLOBAL SCENARIO Death of 3 million people Economic loss increased due to disaster like flood In Indian scenario, 34million people affected per year and 5116 death per year. In US, economic loss is 400 million dollar and 3 million people died.
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DISASTER AGENT ENVIRONMENT HOST
AGENTS OF DISASTER Primary Agents Secondary Agents
Factors affecting disaster Environmental factors Host factors 1. Age 2. Immunization status 1. Physical Factors 2. Chemical Factors 3. Biological Factors 3. Degree of mobility 4. Emotional stability 4. Social Factors 5. Psychological Factors
Phases of Disaster Preimpact phase Rehabili tation Impact Phase Post impact phase
three fundamental aspects of disaster management Disaster Response Disaster Preparedness Disaster Mitigation
DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE Disaster Impact Recovery phase after a disaster Mitigation Risk reduction phase before a disaster Response Preparedness Reconstruction Rehabilitation
DISASTER IMPACT AND RESPONSE Search, rescue and first aid Field care Triage Tagging Identification of dead
Relief phase The type and quantity of humanitarian relief supplies are usually determined by two main factors : (1) the type of disaster, since distinct events have different effects on the population (2) the type and quantity of supplies available locally. There are four principal components in managing humanitarian supplies: (a) acquisition of supplies (b) transportation (c) Storage (d) distribution.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEILLANCE AND DISEASE CONTROL Overcrowding and poor sanitation Population displacement Disruption and the contamination of water supply, damage to sewerage system and power systems Disruption of routine control programmes Ecological changes Displacement of domestic and wild animals Provision of emergency food, water and shelter
Rehabilitation Water supply Food safety Basic sanitation and personal hygiene Vector control
DISASTER MITIGATION IN HEALTH SECTOR Emergency prevention and mitigation involves measures designed either to prevent hazards from causing emergency or to lessen the likely effects of emergencies. These measures include :Flood Mitigation Works Appropriate Land-use Planning Improved Building Codes Reduction Or Protection Of Vulnerable Population And Structures.
Disaster preparedness Emergency preparedness is “a programme of long term development activities whose goals are to strengthen the overall capacity and capability of a country to manage efficiently all types of emergency. It should bring about an orderly transition from relief through recovery, and back to sustained development”.
The reasons of community preparedness are:(a) Members of the community have the most to lose from being vulnerable to disasters and the most to gain from an effective and appropriate emergency preparedness programme (b) Those who first respond to an emergency come from within the community. When transport and communications are disrupted, an external emergency response may not arrive for days (c) Resources is most easily pooled at the community level and every community possesses capabilities. Failure to exploit these capabilities is poor resource management (d) Sustained development is best achieved by allowing emergencyaffected communities to design, manage, and implement internal and external assistance programme.
Policy development The policy development is “the formal statement of a course of action”. Policy is strategic in nature and performs the following functions: a. establish long - term goals; b. assign responsibilities for achieving goals; c. establish recommended work practice; and d. determine criteria for decision making.
PERSONAL PROTECTION IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF EMERGENCIES A number of measures must be observed by all persons in all types of emergency: - Do not use the telephone, except to call for help, so as to leave telephone lines free for the organization of response. - Listen to the messages broadcast by radio and the various media so as to be informed of development. - Carry out the official instructions given over the radio or by loudspeaker. - Keep a family emergency kit ready. In all the different types of emergency, it is better: - To be prepared than to get hurt; - To get information so as to get organized; - To wait rather than act too hastily.
FLOODS STORMS, HURRICANES AND TORNADOES EARTHQUAKE CLOUDS OF TOXIC FUMES
MAN MADE DISASTERS
Community measures in Disaster Community Participation Mock trails/training Mass awareness Education
a. Setting up the first aid post b. Causality evaluation c. Basic hygiene and sanitation d. Safety measures e. Maintenance of food and water supply f. Maintenance of law and order. g. Provision of shelters h. Rescue streaming i. Significance of traffic control and communication j. Use of fire services k. Hazards of radiation and preventive measures l. Prevention of future disasters. m. Grant in aid n. Rehabilitation
ROLE OF NURSE ADMINISTRATOR IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT Preserving Open Lines of Communication Ensuring Quality Patient Care Providing Current Education Influencing Policy and Financial Decisions Providing Security for Staff, Patients, and Families
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