disarmament

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Information about disarmament
Education

Published on March 4, 2008

Author: Tarzen

Source: authorstream.com

Peace and Security through DISARMAMENT:  Peace and Security through DISARMAMENT United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 Charter of the United Nations:  Charter of the United Nations Article 11 The General Assembly may consider the general principles of cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments… We the Peoples of the United Nations … United for a Better World Article 26 In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources, the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating … plans to be submitted to the Members of the United Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments. United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 Slide3:  More than 30,000 nuclear warheads are still stockpiled, many on high alert, ready to be launched on warning. FACTS: United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 In 1945, only one nation possessed a nuclear bomb. Today, there are five recognized nuclear-weapon States in terms of the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of nuclear weapons, and three nuclear-weapon capable States. Industrialized countries account for about 80 per cent of global military expenditures. The United States account for almost half of the world’s total arms production; France and UK for 10 per cent each and Germany, Russia and Japan – for roughly 4 per cent each. World military expenditure peaked at over $1 trillion in 1989. After a period of decline, it is slowly rising today and now stands at $ 780 billion. Slide4:  Today, 80 per cent of the world’s spending on armaments is on conventional weapons and weapons system. MORE FACTS: United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 About 500 million small arms are in circulation world-wide. One-third of the nations of the earth are affected by mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). The countries most affected are those least able to reverse the devastating impact of mines. Arms transfers to developing countries are estimated at some $30 billion a year. DISARMAMENT ISSUES:  DISARMAMENT ISSUES United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 Weapons of Mass Destruction United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 Emerging Issues Regional Disarmament Disarmament and Development Outer Space Conventional Weapons Slide6:  Nuclear Weapons Biological Weapons Chemical Weapons United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 Slide7:  Bilateral agreements: United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 NUCLEAR WEAPONS The 1987 Intermediate‑and Shorter - Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty) The 1979 SALT II Treaty The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty) The 1972 SALT I Agreement Slide8:  Bilateral agreements: United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 NUCLEAR WEAPONS The 1991 Strategic Arms Limitation and Reduction Treaty (START I) The 1992 Lisbon Protocol to START I The 1993 Strategic Arms Limitation and Reduction Treaty II (START II) 2000-with the ratification of START II by the Russian Federation, the US Senate needs to approve a 1997 protocol to the Treaty in order for the Treaty to enter into force. This will then open the way for formal START III negotiations to begin. Unilateral reductions Slide9:  Multilateral agreements United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 NUCLEAR WEAPONS Future agreements: - Fissile Material Treaty The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) The Preparatory Commission for the CTBT Organization (CTBTO PrepCom, based in Vienna) The 1968 Treaty on the Non - Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) - Nuclear Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) - The 1997 Model Additional Protocol The 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water (Partial Test-Ban Treaty) Slide10:  United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 KEEPING THE WORLD - AND OUTER SPACE - FREE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS Slide11:  CHEMICAL WEAPONS Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) - Entered into force 1997 The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), The Hague, Netherlands United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) - Entered into force 1975. Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare (Geneva Protocol) - Signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925. Prohibits the use of biological or chemical weapons in war. Slide12:  Small Arms & Light Weapons Major Conventional Weapons Anti-personnel Landmines United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 Slide13:  SMALL ARMS & LIGHT WEAPONS United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects will take place from 9 to 20 July 2001 at UN Headquarters in NY. In terms of the carnage they cause, small arms, indeed could well be described as “weapons of mass destruction”. Secretary-General’s Millennium Report, 2000 United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 Coordinating Action on Small Arms (CASA) Practical Disarmament Measures - Trust Fund for the Consolidation of Peace through Practical Disarmament Measures Slide14:  United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 ANTI-PERSONNEL LANDMINES Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons - entered into force in 1998 Mine-Ban Convention - entered into force in 1999 Slide15:  United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 TRANSPARENCY MEASURES FOR CONVENTIONAL ARMS United Nations system for the standardized reporting of military expenditures - introduced in 1980 United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - established in 1992 Slide16:  Multilateral treaties: United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 1979 Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Outer Space Treaty) 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water (Partial Test - Ban Treaty) Slide17:  High-level Steering Group on Disarmament and Development set up in May 1999 United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 The International Conference on the Relationship between Disarmament and Development, convened in 1987 - The Programme of Action Slide18:  Cooperation with regional inter-governmental organizations United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 United Nations regional centres for peace and disarmament Regional agreements in the areas of nuclear and conventional disarmament and non-proliferation Slide19:  Missile proliferation and missile defences United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 Information security Revolution in military affairs Slide20:  Special sessions on disarmament: 1978, 1982 and 1988 General Assembly (deliberative) DISARMAMENT MACHINERY First Committee Disarmament Commission Conference on Disarmament (negotiating forum) United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 Security Council Slide21:  Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs Director and Deputy to USG Department for Disarmament Affairs (DDA) Centres for: Asia, Africa, and Latin America & Caribbean United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 Slide22:  DISARMAMENT INFORMATION AND OUTREACH ACTIVITIES United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 United Nations Disarmament Information Programme (Voluntary Trust Fund) United Nations Disarmament Fellowship Programme Disarmament Week - 24 October Messenger of Peace (US actor and producer Michael Douglas) Liaison with civil society, NGOs and academic institutions Cooperation with DPI Slide23:  DISARMAMENT INFORMATION RESOURCES United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000 DDA Internet website (www.un.org/Depts/dda/index.html) DDA Publications: United Nations Disarmament Yearbook Quarterly DDA Update Occasional papers Publications of the Regional Centres (e.g. Bulletin Africain pour la Paix) DDA Library DDA Audio-visual materials (documentary on small arms; PowerPoint presentation) Tour-guide exhibit at Headquarters Briefing for visiting groups (call 212 963 4440) UNIDIR publications and activities Slide24:  United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2000

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