Digital Media Literacy - OLLI SFSU Week 1

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Information about Digital Media Literacy - OLLI SFSU Week 1

Published on November 18, 2019

Author: brookish

Source: slideshare.net

1. MEDIA LITERACY OLLI Fall, 2019 Discerning Fact from Fiction Online

2. Mantra for the Day “Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.” - Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1927- 2003) OLLI Fall 2019

3. The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary OLLI Fall 2019 • 13th century explorer Sir John Mandeville sent reports back from Central Asia • Delicious lamb attached by an umbilical stem • Believed by the learned and well-read deep into the 17th century • Debunked in full in 1887 by naturalist Henry Lee

4. OLLI Fall, 2019

5. Information Overload • On average, Americans consume 34 gigabytes of content and encounter 100,000 written words from various sources in a single day. – International Journal of Communication, 6 (2012), 980–1000 OLLI Fall 2019

6. What is Fake News? • Fake news may be a modern form of yellow journalism that consists of deliberate disinformation, OR misleading information intended to garner views and clicks at the expense of accuracy. It is spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media. OLLI Fall 2019 What is Fake News? • Fake news may be a modern form of yellow journalism that consists of deliberate disinformation, OR misleading information intended to garner views and clicks at the expense of accuracy. It is spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media. OLLI Fall 2019

7. Who Cares? • A well-informed electorate is a prerequisite for a healthy democracy. OLLI Fall 2019 • The Russian disinformation campaign ahead of 2016 election relied on people sharing emotionally charged images and articles We make better decisions when we have better, more complete information

8. Brandolini’s Assymetry Principle OLLI Spring 2018

9. Misinformation vs. Disinformation • Misinformation: Incorrect or misleading information inadvertently shared which influences public opinion or obscures the truth • Disinformation: False information deliberately and often covertly spread in order to influence public opinion or obscure the truth OLLI Fall 2019

10. It’s not always the government OLLI Spring 2018

11. OLLI Spring 2018

12. Just because you agree, doesn’t make it true. OLLI Fall 2019

13. “Truthiness” Truthiness is the belief or assertion that a particular statement is true based on the intuition or perceptions of some individual or individuals, without regard to evidence, logic, intellectual examination, or facts — coined by Stephen Colbert in 2005 OLLI Fall 2019

14. What is a conspiracy theory? OLLI Fall 2019

15. Characteristics of a Conspiracy Theory • A rollicking good story, with elaborate twists and turns • Assignment of agency and malign intention to some large and vague organization or power • A hefty dose of secrecy (this makes up for a lack or provable facts – they are hidden!) • The sense that the actual truth is known only to a very few people (conspiracists want to feel special, and in highly select company) • Efforts to discredit them tend to reinforce them. They are EVIDENCE that conspiracists are “on to” the conspiracy OLLI Fall 2019

16. Not all conspiracies are theoretical • Watergate - It was the coverup • MK Ultra – CIA experiments in mind-control – with some major lapses in informed consent • COINTELPRO – FBI infiltrated civil-rights and anti-war organizations to sow dissent OLLI Fall 2019

17. Examples of Conspiracy Theories • Chemtrails • 9/11 inside job • Sandy Hook was a “false flag” • Pizzagate – Hilary Clinton was running a child sex ring our of a DC-area pizzeria?? • Flat-Earthers • So many more … OLLI Fall 2019

18. Other Kinds of Misinformation • Clickbait – Exciting/suggestive headline does not deliver with facts – Designed to generate views by overpromising, underdelivering • Decontextualized information (old news) – Stories published months or years prior, shared in the context of a breaking news story. “Still true” doesn’t mean it isn’t misleading. • Satire – The Onion vs. “Not the Onion.” Appeals to our sense of the absurd and can trap us by seeming legitimate and consistent OLLI Fall 2019

19. Decontexualization OLLI Spring 2018

20. The Russian Campaign OLLI Fall 2019

21. Poe’s Law “Without a winking smiley or other blatant display of humor, it is impossible to create a parody of fundamentalism that someone won't mistake for the real thing.” – Nathan Poe, 2005 (since expanded to include all kinds of extremism) OLLI Fall 2019

22. Fake Visuals • There’s Photoshop … and then there’s Deep Fakes • Using machine learning to fake videos is getting more and more sophisticated • “Video evidence” might not be OLLI Spring 2018 Fake Visuals • There’s Photoshop … and then there’s Deep Fakes • Using machine learning to fake videos is getting more and more sophisticated • “Video evidence” might not be OLLI Spring 2018

23. Can You Spot a Fake? OLLI Spring 2018

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