Diffusion of Innovation

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Information about Diffusion of Innovation
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Published on May 13, 2008

Author: mediaeco

Source: slideshare.net

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Diffusion of innovation made simple. A condensed and applied summary of ‘The Diffusion of Innovations’ by Everett Rogers. A presentation I've given many times!

The Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations A Quick Summary of ‘The Diffusion of Innovations’ by Everett Rogers or ‘ Really, all you need to know about innovation diffusion and adoption was written over 50 years ago (and updated a few times since then)’ Dr. David J. Walczyk (c) Dr. David J. W alczyk

Sections: 1. Overview of technological diffusion 2. Stages in the innovation-decision making process 3. Attributes of innovations and their rates of adoption 4. Adopter categories 5. Putting it all together: the innovation process is an organization (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

1. Overview of technological diffusion (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

A process by which: 1. any innovation 2. is diffused through certain channels and then adopted 3. over time 4. among the members of a social system (for instance a culture, a subculture, an organization) - What is an innovation? - Examples? What is technological diffusion? (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

The elements of technological diffusion: 1. the innovation 2. communication channels 3. time 4. the social system (people and the organization) Lets look at the characteristics of the first element in detail… (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Characteristics of the innovation that relate to diffusion and adoption: 1. Relative advantage 2. Compatibility 3. Complexity 4. Trialability 5. Observability (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Relative advantage : degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the technology it supersedes. Measured in? (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Compatibility : the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters. How much change is required… Examples? (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Complexity : The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being easy or difficult to adopt. Examples? (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Trialability : the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with prior to adoption Why important? (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Observability : the degree to which the benefits (+ and -) are visible to others Examples? (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

2. Stages in the innovation-decision making process (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Innovation-decision process : an information-seeking and information-processing activity in which an individual is motivated to reduce uncertainty with the advantages and disadvantages of the innovation Examples? (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Steps in the innovation-decision process: 1. knowledge 2. persuasion 3. decision 4. implementation 5. confirmation Lets look at each step in detail… (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Knowledge : when an individual (or other decision-making unit) is exposed to an innovation’s existence and gains an understanding of how it functions Examples? (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Persuasion : when an individual (or other decision-making unit) forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude towards the innovation Examples? (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Decision : when an individual (or other decision-making unit) engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation Examples? (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Implementation : when an individual (or other decision-making unit) puts a new technology to use Examples? (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Confirmation : when an individual (or other decision-making unit) seeks to reinforce or revoke (reject) an innovation-decision Examples? (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Two types of innovation rejection: Active – consideration and then rejection Passive – no consideration and no adoption (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

A big picture The rate of awareness-knowledge for an innovation is more rapid than its rate of adoption (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

3. Attributes of innovations and their rates of adoption (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Attributes of innovations : (differences) in perceived properties of innovations Rate of adoption : the speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system. (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Another big picture (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

4. Adopter categories (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Adopters : measured in terms of the behavioral, cognitive, and attitudinal openness to change Diffusion follows an “S” curve (similar to in the real-world) – a normal distribution Distribution of adopter categories follows a bell curve The “S”-curve and the normal distribution curve overlap to give a general/generic view of technological diffusion (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Categories: (3 to left, 2 to right on a bell curve) - innovators 2.5% - early adopters 13.5% - early majority 34% - late majority 34% - laggards 16% (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Innovators – gatekeepers, control flow of new ideas Early adopters – highest level of opinion leadership. Potential adopters look to them Early majority – Seldom hold positions of opinion leadership Late majority – general acceptance is established Laggards – do not accept change (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Two main types of diffusion systems: Centralized (linear – top-down) Decentralized (non-linear bottom-up convergence) (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

5. Putting it all together: the innovation process is an organization (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

(c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Agenda-setting – organizational problem is defined that creates a need for an innovation. For example a performance gap Matching – stage at which a problem from the agenda is fit with an innovation Redefining/restructuring – reinvention of innovation to organizations needs. Organizations structure is modified to fit with the innovation Clarifying – Flexibility. Social construction or technological determinism Routinizing – Integration into everyday life (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

But its iterative! So…we must analyze consequences 1. Desirable vs. undesirable 2. Direct vs. indirect 3. Anticipated vs. unanticipated (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

Desirable – functional effects on individuals or more Undesirable – Dysfunctional effects Direct consequences – changes that occur in immediate response Indirect - the consequences of consequences Anticipated – changes that are recognized and intended Unanticipated – neither recognized nor intended (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

End (c) Dr. David J. walczyk

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