DictatorsPPT

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Published on December 24, 2007

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“The Dictators”:  “The Dictators” Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, and Tojo: The men behind the start of WWII. Forward Pictures taken from www.wikipedia.org Presentation created by Terry Newman A Brief Overview…:  A Brief Overview… Throughout this Power Point you will have the opportunity to learn more about the dictators who had an immediate impact on the start of WWII and determine, specifically, what each of the men contributed to the uneasy international stage of the 1930’s. We will also determine to what extent the failures of the Big Four at the Treaty of Versailles had in creating a tenuous political, militaristic, and social situation in Germany. Before we begin, consider the following questions…  Why did the United States want to return to “normalcy?”  How did the Great Depression effect American foreign policy? Why didn’t the United States intervene in Japanese and German expansion?  Do you think WWII could have been stopped? How? Forward  What is Fascism? Click here to find out… America in the 1930’s:  America in the 1930’s American Economic Output (GDP) President Harding was elected in 1920 due, in large part because he promised a “return to normalcy,” or the way things were before WWI. America embarked on 20 years of relative isolationism. Throughout the 1920’s the United States experienced an economic boom unlike anything seen before or since. The 1930’s ushered in a new era, one of poverty, want, and starvation. Crops failed in the Midwest due largely to the phenomenon known as the “Dust Bowl.” Forward Picture taken from www.wikipedia.org American Response to Fascist Aggression:  American Response to Fascist Aggression For the most part, American response to Fascist aggression was virtually nonexistent. Throughout the 1930’s America and the Roosevelt Administration was concerned about it’s own Economic well-being, rather than wider world affairs. With American unemployment at 25% nationwide, you can see why Roosevelt was more concerned with domestic affairs. As WWII grew closer, however, America did begin a modest building up of its military. The Roosevelt Administration also supported the Allies in Europe with weapons (Lend-Lease, Cash and Carry) and instituted economic sanctions against an expansionist Japan. Forward Fascist States:  Fascist States Nations with one party in control (prevalent in Europe and Asia prior to WWII) -Uses idea of Nationalism and Revenge to gain support -Promise the promotion of their country at the expense of “lesser” peoples (Germany-Jews, Japanese-Chinese) -The greater the crisis, the greater the demand for leadership -Provide scapegoats for the problems of their country -Party control of everything + Dictator = False propaganda to gain support -Crushes all opposition -Imperialism to increase strength and increase pride in their country – leads to other conflicts -Generally a very militaristic government and society Notice that all of the causes of WWI will be in existence at the start of WWII in 1939. Many of these (Nationalism, Militarism, and Imperialism) are at the center of these Totalitarian governments Back Main Slide:  Main Slide Works Cited Adolf Hitler - How did he take power?:  Adolf Hitler - How did he take power? Back Hitler as a young soldier in WWI 1923 - Hitler attempted to take control of a struggling Germany through the “Beer Hall Putsch.” He failed and was arrested. In jail he wrote “Mein Kampf” exposing his political ideology. He was considered harmless and was released in 1924. 1932 - Defeated von Hindenburg in national election. Hitler was the Chancellor of Germany. 1934 - Hitler declares himself the “Fuhrer of Germany taking dictatorial power. Picture taken from www.wikipedia.org 1938 - Anschluss with Austria (Outlawed by Treaty of Versailles 1939 - Invasion of Poland and start of WWII German propaganda Adolf Hitler - Beliefs:  Adolf Hitler - Beliefs Back Picture taken from http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/sgt_stryker/hitler.gif Hitler believed the Treaty of Versailles was a result of German leaders betraying the German people. He thought Germany would, one day, have a reemergence as a world power. Click here to view the goals of the Third Reich Adolf Hitler - Effect on world politics:  Adolf Hitler - Effect on world politics Back Click here to see German Expansion throughout the late 1930’s. Picture Taken from www.time.com Hitler had an immediate and direct impact on politicians around the world. Some admired his beliefs and convictions, others saw a dangerous man who would, one day, have a direct impact on the death of 52 million people. Allied leaders in Europe made an attempt to appease Hitler in 1938 when they signed the Munich Agreement. Click here to view a brief description of the Munich Pact. Click here to view the Munich Pact in its entirety. Picture Taken from en.wikipedia.org Adolf Hitler - Lasting Impact:  Adolf Hitler - Lasting Impact Back The name Adolf Hitler is, today, synonymous with hate and genocide. The war he helped to start is the bloodiest war in human history. There are, unfortunately, still people today who follow the principles of Nazism. The German people are still haunted by the actions of the Nazi government. Adolf Hitler and Militarism:  Adolf Hitler and Militarism Back Picture taken from www.malispina.com Above all else, Hitler believed in the military superiority of the German empire. His fighting techniques, such as blitzkrieg, threatened to overthrow Europe in only a year. Benito Mussolini - How did he take power?:  Benito Mussolini - How did he take power? Back 1921 - Entered Parliament after having been defeated in 1919 1922 - Became premier of Italy 1925 - Mussolini declared Italy a fascist dictatorship and took control over society, politics, and economics, as well as the military. Picture taken from http://cidc.library.cornell.edu/dof/italy/captioned/horse.htm Benito Mussolini - Beliefs:  Benito Mussolini - Beliefs Back Back Picture taken from http://www.comandosupremo.com/Mussolini.html Mussolini was in favor of state control of economics, society, and that the political system should be in the hands of few. He was opposed to Communism and was very Militaristic. He directly influenced Hitler and the Nazi’s. Benito Mussolini - Effect on world politics.:  Benito Mussolini - Effect on world politics. Back Picture taken from http://www.comandosupremo.com/Mussolini.html Possibly Mussolini’s most direct and lasting impact was not in Italy, but his influence on Hitler and Nazism. He created the first Fascist government and was allied with Germany throughout WWII. Picture taken from http://members.telering.at/pat/muss.jpg Benito Mussolini - Lasting Impact:  Benito Mussolini - Lasting Impact Back Picture taken from http://home.comcast.net/~lowe9101/mussolini/ Known as Il Duce- “the Chief” Italian Imperialism -Moves to remake Roman Empire (Restore Rome to time of Caesars) -Make the Mediterranean an “Italian Lake” Same government controls of everything as in Germany -Hailed by the people because he “Made the trains run on time” Benito Mussolini and Militarism:  Benito Mussolini and Militarism Back Picture taken from http://home.comcast.net/~lowe9101/mussolini/ The Italian army was not known for being a preeminent power during WWII. The Nazi German Empire was forced to defend Italy against Allied advances. Mussolini did, however, extend the Italian empire, especially into Africa. Joseph Stalin - How did he take power?:  Joseph Stalin - How did he take power? Back Picture taken from en.wikipedia.org After the death of the first Communist dictator in the Soviet Union, Vladimir Lenin, there was a power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky. Stalin won out and immediately set out to diminish any struggle for power. He further abolished all opposition and sent political prisoners to “re-education” camps. By 1928 Stalin was undoubtedly the leader of the Soviet Union. Stalin Trotsky Bukharin Joseph Stalin - Beliefs:  Joseph Stalin - Beliefs Back Picture taken from en.wikipedia.org Five Year Plans - Goals for the Communist state (industrial - economic) Collectivization of Agriculture Increase Soviet knowledge in the sciences (Space Race after WWII) Believed in military superiority over the United States (build- up of nuclear weapons) Click here to read a biographical sketch (timeline included) of Stalin Joseph Stalin - Effect on world politics:  Joseph Stalin - Effect on world politics Back Picture taken from en.wikipedia.org The effect of Stalin on world politics is virtually impossible to overstate. He led the Soviet Union through domestic instability (not always well) while fighting against Hitler in WWII, the United States in the Cold War, and trying to gain alliances with developing countries throughout the world. The United States essentially based its foreign policy around that of the Soviet Union, and vice-versa, for 50 years. Joseph Stalin - Lasting Impact:  Joseph Stalin - Lasting Impact Back Click here to view a biographical perspective on Joseph Stalin. The lasting impact of Stalin is one of controversy. Millions of men and women died under his rule of an steel fist. He led the Soviet Union until his death in 1953. He left the United States and Soviet Union embroiled in a battle for world supremacy which would last until 1991. Picture taken from http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/stalin/ Joseph Stalin and Militarism:  Joseph Stalin and Militarism Back Stalin believed in having a large military. When the Soviet Union was invaded by Nazi Germany in June of 1941 Stalin started a build-up of the Soviet army which would last for several decades. Hideki Tojo - How did he take power?:  Hideki Tojo - How did he take power? Back Click here to see a history of Japan 1920’s - Tojo works his way up the military ladder in Japan. 1930’s - Led troops in battle in China 1940 - Appointed War Minister 1941 - Emperor Hirohito elevates Tojo to the post of Prime Minister Hideki Tojo - Beliefs:  Hideki Tojo - Beliefs Back Picture taken from http://www.bibl.u-szeged.hu/bibl/mil/ww2/who/tojo.html Tojo believed in the Racial Superiority of the Japanese people, especially over the Chinese. He was also ultra-nationalistic as well as very militaristic. He wanted to expand the Japanese empire throughout the Pacific Rim. Hideki Tojo - Effect on world politics:  Hideki Tojo - Effect on world politics Back Click here to see Japanese Military Expansion Picture taken from www.trumanlibrary.org When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Tojo became public enemy number one in the United States. Throughout his tenure as Prime Minister he increased alliances with the Axis powers in Europe and extended military control over Japanese Society and the Pacific Rim. Tojo was executed for war crimes in 1948. Hideki Tojo - Lasting Impact:  Hideki Tojo - Lasting Impact Back Picture taken from http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWtojo.htm Hideki Tojo is, today, known as a man who led the Japanese into WWII against the United States. He is credited for increasing Japanese military, industrial, and imperialistic capacity, but also saw the end of Japanese society as it was known before 1945. Hideki Tojo and Militarism:  Hideki Tojo and Militarism Back Tojo and the Japanese military commanders believed Japan to be invincible. For hundreds of years the Japanese mainland was not successfully invaded. Japan extended its empire throughout the Pacific Rim and had visions of going quite a bit farther. Click here to view see the Pacific Theater of WWII. Works Cited:  Works Cited Bragdon, H., McCutchen, S., Ritchie, D. (1998). History of a Free Nation. New York: McGraw-Hill. Boyer, P., Clark, C., Hawley, S., Kett, J., Salisbury, N., Sitkoff, H., Woloch, N. (1998). The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved May 18, 2006 from http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/map10eu.htm Retrieved May 18, 2006 from http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/atlases/ww2%20europe /ww2%20europe%20pages/ww2%20europe%20map%2002.htm Retrieved May 22, 2006 from www.wikipedia.org Retrieved May 22, 2006 from http://cidc.library.cornell.edu/dof/italy/captioned/horse.htm Retrieved May 22, 2006 from http://home.comcast.net/~lowe9101/mussolini/ Retrieved May 23, 2006 from http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/sgt_stryker/hitler.gif Next Works Cited:  Works Cited Retrieved June 3, 2006 from http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWtojo.htm Retrieved June 3, 2006 from http://www.bibl.u-szeged.hu/bibl/mil/ww2/who/tojo.html Retrieved June 3, 2006 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/pacific/index.html Retrieved May 25, 2006 from http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/munich1.htm Retrieved May 25, 2006 from http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/stalin/ Retrieved May 25, 2006 from www.bbc.co.uk Home German Expansion prior to 1941:  Maps taken from http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/map10eu.htm & http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/atlases/ww2%20europe/ww2%20europe%20pages/ww2%20europe%20map%2002.htm German Expansion prior to 1941 Back Link to the beginning of WWII through a timeline (UCSD) Italian Expansion prior to 1941:  Italian Expansion prior to 1941 Back Japanese Expansion prior to 1942:  Japanese Expansion prior to 1942 Next Link to Japanese expansion before December 7, 1941 Japan USA Japanese Flag:  Japanese Flag Flag of Japanese Navy and Army Back American GDP during the Great Depression:  American GDP during the Great Depression Why might we see the GDP increasing in the 1940’s? Back Nazi Germany - Hitler:  Nazi Germany - Hitler Germany was led by Adolf Hitler who was known as “Der Fuhrer” or The Leader Takes control of German Political system as dictator 1. Assumes all power after being given position of chancellor by Von  Hindenbergh in 1933 -Hindenbergh gave Hitler post in an attempt to unify government -Reichstag was controlled by Hitler’s party as well -Nazi- National Socialist German Worker’s Party First move is to wipe out all Opposition 1. Burning of the Reichstag -Nazis set fire and frame radicals (Communists) -Nazis given power to rule all of Germany -Hitler ordered the arrest of Communists, All other opposition is scared away Hitler’s Secret police, the Gestapo, forced an alliance to the Nazi Party Propaganda Machine 1. Joseph Goebbels - Minister of Propaganda -Propaganda - Information of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view -Lied to people to gain support, promoted hatred of Jews, called for support of the Third Reich -Promoted the hatred of Jews Nazi Germany - Hitler:  Nazi Germany - Hitler Nazi Imperialism -goal was to create the Third Reich - 3rd German Empire Lebensraum - living space for German speaking people Anschluss - Union with Austria & annex Sudentenland -Imperialism started under excuse of protecting Germans under Hitler Racism of the Nazis -Jews not only group that was considered inferior Gypsies, disabled, homosexuals, non-German’s, Communists Final Solution - ridding Germany of the above groups Played on poor conditions of the time -Promised through Propaganda that the effects of the Great Depression would be solved in the Nazi plan was followed -Gave people hope -Wanted revenge after Treaty of Versailles of 1919 (felt Germany was betrayed and never truly beaten) Hitler believes the Treaty is just a “piece of paper” Hitler as a young soldier in WWI Communist Russia - Stalin:  Communist Russia - Stalin The Soviet Union was led by Joseph Stalin who is known as the “Man of Steel” Originally from Georgia and his name was Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashvili Wanted to make model Communist nation -Controlled everything under the communist system -Reform of industry and agriculture Collectivization of Agriculture -Large, state owned and run farms too land from people and enslaved farmers to work at the large farms - led to starvation Soviet Union as an Industrial Power -”Five Year Plans” - fixed quotas for industrial production -Made Soviet Union 3rd greatest industrial nation in the world Secret Police forced adherence to Communist System -KGB is his spy organization at home and abroad -Those found criticizing the system were sent to Siberia for “re-education” -Reconstruction (“Five Year Plans”) and persecution led to mass death and executions (Estimated that 8-13 million died due to actions of Stalin No Imperliastic gains until after USSR becomes powerful Hitler during WWI:  Hitler during WWI www.wikipedia.org Propaganda in Nazi Germany:  Propaganda in Nazi Germany This is an example of Nazi propaganda where Hitler is shown as the nation’s savior. Back

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