Dickinson GSH Synthesis

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Information about Dickinson GSH Synthesis
Education

Published on February 6, 2008

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Slide1:  Glutathione – Synthesis Dale A. Dickinson1, Shelly C. Lu2 and Henry Jay Forman1 1University of Alabama at Birmingham, Environmental Health Sciences, and, Center for Free Radical Biology, 1530 3rd Avenue South, RPHB 636, Birmingham, AL 35216 hforman@uab.edu 2University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, HMR 415, 2011 Zonal Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90033 shellylu@hsc.usc.edu The Virtual Free Radical School Glutathione – the very basics 1:  Glutathione – the very basics 1 full name: -L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine GSH (glutathione) M.W. = 307.3 g mol-1 often improperly called reduced glutathione GSSG (glutathione disulfide) M.W. = 612.6 g mol-1 often improperly called oxidized glutathione Glutathione – the very basics 2:  Glutathione – the very basics 2 Glutathione is the most abundant non-protein thiol in the cell, often found in the millimolar range (1 to 10 mM, depending on cell type). Glutathione is a tri-peptide that has a gamma linkage between the first two amino acids (instead of the typical alpha linkage), which resists degradation by intracellular peptidases. Glutathione – the very basics 3 Projection Drawing:  Glutathione – the very basics 3 Projection Drawing Glutathione – uses and recycling:  Glutathione – uses and recycling GSH is consumed in many enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions, where it serves as a source of reducing equivalents. GSH is used by glutathione peroxidases, and can exchange with mixed disulfides to yield GSSG. GSSG, via the action of glutathione reductase, regenerates GSH at the expense of NADPH. This is a redox-cycling mechanism to prevent GSH loss. Slide6:  Glutathione - redox cycling Glutathione – uses and losses:  Glutathione – uses and losses The glutathione S-transferases (GST) serve a protective role by adding GSH to a molecule, targeting it for export from the cell. In this reaction, GSH is ‘lost’ from the cell and must be replaced. Replacement is by either the salvage pathway, or more prominently, by de novo synthesis. de novo synthesis - 1:  de novo synthesis - 1 Enzymatic synthesis occurs from the component amino acids (glutamate, cysteine, and glycine) via the sequential action of two ATP-dependent, cytosolic enzymes. The rate of de novo synthesis is responsive to environmental factors; it is regulated at many levels, and is the topic of another lesson. de novo synthesis - 2:  de novo synthesis - 2 The first enzyme of the two enzymes, according to IUBMB nomenclature, is properly called glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL, E.C. 6.3.2.2). Formerly referred to as -glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS). de novo synthesis - 3:  de novo synthesis - 3 The GCL holoenzyme is a heterodimer of ~104 kDa. It can be separated under non-denaturing conditions to yield two subunits. Seeling et al., J Biol Chem 259: 9345; 1984. Increased GCL activity usually results from increased content of the GCL subunits, usually due to increased gene expression for the subunits. The GCL holoenzyme can also be regulated by S-nitrosation, phosphorylation, and oxidation. Griffith, Free Radic Biol Med, 27: 922; 1999. Sun et al., Biochem J, 320: 321; 1996. Ochi, Arch Toxicol, 70: 96; 1995. de novo synthesis - 4:  de novo synthesis - 4 The ‘heavy’ subunit (~73 kDa) has the catalytic activity, and is the site of GSH feedback inhibition. Seeling et al., J Biol Chem 259: 9345; 1984. The ‘light’ (~28 kDa), or modulatory subunit alters, or regulates, the activity of the holoenzyme by reducing the Km for glutamate and elevating the Ki for GSH, thereby making the enzyme more efficient and less sensitive to feedback inhibition. Tu and Anders, Arch Biochem Biophys 354: 247; 1998. Choi et al., J Biol Chem 275: 3696; 2000. de novo synthesis - 5:  de novo synthesis - 5 Cysteine Glutamate -glutamylcysteine ADP ATP GCL de novo synthesis - 6:  The second enzyme in de novo synthesis is named, according to IUBMB, glutathione synthase (GS, E.C. 6.3.2.3), formerly called glutathione synthetase. This enzyme is a homodimer of ~118 kDa. In an ATP-dependent manner, GS adds glycine to -glutamylcysteine to form GSH. de novo synthesis - 6 de novo synthesis - 7:  de novo synthesis - 7 Glycine ADP ATP GSH synthase -glutamylcysteinylglycine -glutamylcysteine (GSH) Glutathione – breakdown 1:  Glutathione – breakdown 1 The linkage of glutamate to cysteine via the gamma carbon makes GSH refractory to standard proteases. Only one enzyme is known to breakdown GSH. IUBMB officially named this enzyme -glutamyltransferase (GGT, E.C. 2.3.2.2). Sometimes called -glutamyltranspeptidase. Glutathione – breakdown 2:  GGT is an ectoenzyme (it exists functionally on the outside of cells). It functions in an ATP-dependent manner to cleave the gamma linkage between glutamate and cysteine to transfer the glutamyl residue to another amino acid, often cystine (cysteine disulfide). This reaction also generates cysteinylglycine. Cysteinylglycine is cleaved by an external dipeptidase to yield free cysteine and glycine. Glutathione – breakdown 2 Glutathione – breakdown 3:  The dipeptidase products cysteine and glycine re-enter the cell by specific amino acids transporters. This is critical, as cysteine is often a limiting amino acid in de novo GSH biosynthesis. The -glutamyl-amino acid couple also re-enters the cell by an amino acid transporter. Once in the cell the amino acid and the -glutamyl moiety are separated. The carrier amino acid is often cystine, and this process has been hypothesized to be important in the re-cycling of cysteine (via subsequent reduction of cystine). The -glutamyl residue forms 5-oxoproline, which by the action of 5-oxoprolinase, yields glutamate. Glutathione – breakdown 3 The Glutathione Cycle - 1:  The Glutathione Cycle - 1 The processes of de novo GSH biosynthesis by GCL and GS; its use in protective reactions and subsequent export from the cell; its breakdown by GGT; and the re-entry of the amino acids into the cell form a cycle, as originally proposed by Meister’s group a quarter of a century ago. Griffith et al., PNAS, 75: 5405; 1978. Slide19:  extracellular intracellular -glutamyl-amino acid cysteinylglycine amino acid GGT -glutamylcysteinylglycine GSH transporter -glu-amino acid amino acid cys gly dipeptidase Amino acid transporters 5-oxoproline ATP ADP glycine ADP ATP GSH synthase -glutamylcysteinylglycine cysteine glutamate -glutamylcysteine ADP ATP GCL The Glutathione Cycle – 2 – lesson summary

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