Published on March 10, 2014
DiarrheaDiarrhea ( brief presentation ) Supervised by : dr. Adham Abu Tahaa Made by : Mohammed alrjoub
Goals In this presentation : • Definition of diarrhea. • Diarrhea subtype and causes of diarrhea. • Diarrhea assessment by pharmacist. • Non-pharmacological treatment for diarrhea. • Pharmacology treatment of diarrhea with OTC medications.
Diarrhea definition : Abnormal irritable or non irritable problem in GI- tract which result in an increase in the volume and weight of daily stool. The frequency of bowel movements is usually increased as well.
Diarrhea subtype and causes of diarrhea Diarrhea classed upon to period of time :. • Chronic diarrhea : (last more than 3 days ). this type result from more than one reasons, that may be ulcerative colitis. • Acute diarrhea : ( last less than 3 days ) . which result from acute infection for certain pathogens or from medications that have a diarrhea as a side effect.
Diarrhea subtype and causes of diarrhea : Diarrhea are classed upon the etiology of the disease : • Viral induce diarrhea (norwalk virus and rotavirusis) • Bacterial induce diarrhea (travelers diarrhea ) • Protozoal induce diarrhea (amebia which caused amebiasis ) • Food induced diarrhea (expired food ) • Others (some of drugs like antibiotics causes diarrhea )
Diarrhea subtype causes of diarrhea : this classification is upon the mechanism of which route diarrhea caused: • secretary diarrhea: this type of diarrhea result in an increase the active secretion of mucus in the GI tract . • osmotic diarrhea : The increases in the salt and sugar excessively can cause diarrhea. • Exudative diarrhea : Some of The chronic diseases that cause diarrhea are classed in this group, e.g. ulcerative colitis.
Assessment of patient with diarrhea by the pharmacist : The assessment of patient with diarrhea include the following : • The pharmacist must know how old, gander, any other diseases, drugs, if she women ask her about if she is pregnant or not, and the important thing that asking about the nature of stool, how many (patient) use toilets. All of these questions must be asked from the pharmacist.
Non-Pharmacology treatment of diarrhea Non-pharmacological treatment for diarrhea are contian this steps as following : Dehydrations: * oral rehydration therapy. * maintenance for the first point. Avoid fatty foods, spicy foods, and any foods contain a high concentration of suger.
Pharmacological treatment for diarrhea : • First choice for severe diarrhea is Loperaminde, which is a opioid category with no effect on CNS, as morphine and codeine. • There are two many of drugs that used to prevent diarrhea : 1. Resins ( adsorbent), e.g. Uocarbon®. 2. The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF recommend daily 20 mg zinc supplements for 10 – 14 days for children with acute diarrhea, and 10 mg per day for infants under six months old. 3. Aquamix® which contain salts and sugar as a part of rehydration. 4. Furamix® which contain pectin, kaolin and furazolidone, 20, 100, and 50 mgs respectively . This drug can be used in GI tract infection by fungi . 5. ORS ® sachets contain electrolyte and sugar. 6. kalbeten® which contain Bismuth subsalicylate, it has antimicrobial effects. Important thing for kabeten is neurotoxic and have a very serious side effect like a Gray-Blak discoloration of tongue and or stool . They are contraindicated for children with Rays syndrome & in patient with history of bleeding.
Worldwide in 2004, approximately 2.5 billion cases of diarrhea occurred, which resulted in 1.5 million deaths among children under the age of five.
Landing page listing resources on diarrhea available from National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse.
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