Dial 325 Social Disorganization

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Information about Dial 325 Social Disorganization

Published on March 12, 2008

Author: Aric85

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Social Disorganization/Social Ecology*:  Social Disorganization/Social Ecology* Kelly Cheeseman Dial, PhD AJ 325 *Some information taken from Texas police departments gang information webpages A few questions to consider:  A few questions to consider What is social organization? What are the qualities of a desirable community? An undesirable community? The Beginning’s:  The Beginning’s Rise of cities in Europe Quetelet – thermic law of delinquency Competition within communities This set of ideas is in direct challenge to biological determinism of the late 1800’s The Chicago School:  The Chicago School University of Chicago (1920’s and 1930’s) Asked the questions: If crime is a result of individual defects, why do some geographical areas have more crime than others? How is it that some neighborhoods have high rates of crime despite a complete turnover in their population? Park and Burgess:  Park and Burgess Shaw and Mckay:  Shaw and Mckay Juvenile Delinquency in urban areas ( 1942) Mapped addresses of delinquents What were the specific characteristics of the zone in transition? Population heterogeneity Population turnover Physical decay Poverty/inequality Explaining high crime in the zone of transition:  Explaining high crime in the zone of transition Social control Little community cohesion Weak community institutions Cultural transmission of values Once crime takes root Delinquent values are passed through to other generations Measuring Disorganization :  Measuring Disorganization Census variables: Age distribution, marital status, household income, ethnic heterogeneity, unemployment, residential mobility Crime and Economic Conditions:  Crime and Economic Conditions Does poverty cause crime? Strain Theory is about Deviant Motivation:  Strain Theory is about Deviant Motivation Assumption #1: We are all naturally law-abiding, if given the chance Assumption #2: We break rules when we experience strain Assumption #3: Strain originates in our social experience What do you do when bad things happen?:  What do you do when bad things happen? Someone abuses you physically? emotionally? You fail a test you studied for Your loved one dumps you Your parent dies suddenly Your parents get a divorce You become a crime victim Responding to Stress:  Responding to Stress Stress responses occur at three levels: Emotional responses Physiological responses Behavioral responses Emotional responses are usually negative and fall into three categories: 1. Annoyance, anger, and rage 2. Apprehension, anxiety, and fear 3. Dejection, sadness, and grief Responding to Stress (cont.):  However, stress can prompt positive emotional responses which in turn: Increase creativity, flexibility in problem solving, and Enhance immune system functioning, increase valuable social support and promote proactive coping. Responding to Stress (cont.) Responding to Stress (cont.):  Behavioral Responses to stress usually refer to coping, or active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress. Coping response may be either: Healthy (e.g., actively trying to solve problem by asking for help or generating solutions) or Unhealthy (e.g., ignoring problem, indulging in alcohol or excessive eating). Criminal behavior? Responding to Stress (cont.) The Potential Effects of Stress:  The Potential Effects of Stress Impaired task performance. Stress can cause people to “freeze up”, or “crack under pressure”. Elevated self-consciousness can disrupt attention to task. Disruption of cognitive function. Increased tendency to jump to conclusions. Decreased ability to carefully review options. Decreased memory function. The Potential Effects of Stress (cont.):  Burnout – physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism and lowered sense of self-efficacy that is attributable to work-related stress. Factors in workplace that promote burnout include lack of control over responsibilities, work overload, and lack of recognition. Burnout can result in increased absenteeism, reduced productivity and risk of illness The Potential Effects of Stress (cont.) Slide18:  Figure 3.14 The Potential Effects of Stress (cont.):  Psychological problems and disorders. Stress may contribute to: Poor academic performance; Insomnia and other sleep disturbances; Sexual difficulties; and Substance abuse. The Potential Effects of Stress (cont.) Agnew’s (1992) Strain Theory:  Agnew’s (1992) Strain Theory Blocked Goals Corrective Actions Negative Emotions (mostly anger, but also anxiety and depression) The American Dream:  The American Dream Culturally valued goals Money, status, material objects Legitimate means Hard work, perseverance Merton’s (1938) Strain Theory: A Critique of U.S. Society:  Merton’s (1938) Strain Theory: A Critique of U.S. Society Critique #1: Our culture’s requirement that people achieve success (i.e., wealth) is stronger than its requirement that they play by the rules to attain it Critique #2: There is a mismatch between our culture’s universal success goals (wealth) and people’s differential access to the legitimate means to achieving those goals Merton’s Adaptations to Strain:  Merton’s Adaptations to Strain Albert Cohen: Strain Theory and Delinquent Subculture:  Albert Cohen: Strain Theory and Delinquent Subculture Strain: Lower class youth fail to achieve middle class standards ( “middle class measuring rod”) -> strain (status frustration) Reduce strain by creating an alternative status system - a group solution to the problem of strain Oppositional subculture: Middle class values upside down Explains non-utilitarian deviance (e.g., vandalism) Strain & “Anomie” in Society:  Strain & “Anomie” in Society Disjuncture between socially valued goals and legitimate means for achieving those goals Anomie = a state of “normlessness” in society Rules inspire less commitment We don’t trust that others will follow rules Overview of Strain Theories:  Overview of Strain Theories Agnew’s Strain Theory Blocked goals->negative emotion->corrective action Merton’s Strain Theory Success is valued more than playing by the rules Differential access to legitimate means Cohen’s Strain Theory Oppositional/delinquent adaptation to status frustration Policy Implications of Strain Theory:  Policy Implications of Strain Theory Equalize opportunities for success De-emphasize material success goals Re-emphasize playing by the rules Group Work:  Group Work If your neighborhood is a “zone of transition” what can be done to change it? How does fear influence crime and neighborhood interactions? Identify reasons why youths join gangs? Are neighborhood watch programs effective? Why or why not? Modern S.D. Theory:  Modern S.D. Theory “Concentric Rings” not necessary, modern SD examines at the basic neighborhood level Ecological characteristics have an effect on a neighborhoods level of informal social control What are informal social controls at the neighborhood level? Sampson and Groves ( 1989):  Sampson and Groves ( 1989) British Crime Survey Data Population turnover Poverty/inequality Divorce rates Single parents Street supervision Friendship networks Participation in neighborhood organizations Sampson ( 1997):  Sampson ( 1997) Replicated his results in Chicago Areas with concentrated disadvantage: Poverty Family disruption Primarily minority Willingness to exercise control ( i.e. tell kids to quiet down) Willingness to trust or help each other Lack of “collective efficacy” This lack of collective efficacy increases crime rates Does poverty cause crime? 5 things to consider:  Does poverty cause crime? 5 things to consider Poverty is subjective Good economy = low crime?? Amount of time in poverty conditions Which factor is causing the crime? Difference between poverty and economic inequality. What is a Gang?:  What is a Gang? Texas Penal Code 71.01(d) says: “Three or more persons having a common identifying sign symbol or leadership, who continuously or regularly associate in the commission of criminal activities.” Recruiting:  Recruiting Reasons for Gang Membership:  Reasons for Gang Membership The gang provides needs: Love, Compassion, Nurturing, and Financial gain The gang gives them a sense of security, structure, and respect that is often missing at home The gang is loyal and accepts them for who they are Peer pressure Excitement of gang activity The Three Big Lies:  The Three Big Lies The gang provides protection The gang will get you respect The gang will be your family and won’t let you down Identifying Potential Gang Members (cont.):  Identifying Potential Gang Members (cont.) Imitation of the dress and/or behavior of a known gang Tattoos drawn on the body, either self made or professionally Glorifies or emulates a known gang member’s behavior or symbols Hanging out with a new group of friends Changes in personality or behavior Alcohol or drug abuse Frequently bruised or injured Carrying guns, knives or other weapons Types of Gang Activity:  Types of Gang Activity Extortion Intimidation Burglary Face to face confrontations Fights Recruitment rituals: jumping in/sexing in Graffiti Hand Signs: flagging Tattoos Drive-by shootings Drug use and trafficking Stages of Gang Membership:  Stages of Gang Membership Wannabe/Gonnabe Wants to be a gang member Probably will be a gang member Peripheral One who hangs around with the gang May or may not engage in the gang activities Associates Actual gang members who have been jumped in Hardcore Lives only for the gang Most violent Physical Signs of Gang Membership:  Physical Signs of Gang Membership CAPS/HATS Black, dark blue, and red are popular gang colors. Notice how the cap is worn, on one side or the other and look for writing either sewed onto the cap or under the bill. SHIRTS The styles of shirts can range from T-shirts to Pendleton shirts. How the shirt is worn is important. Look for writings or drawings on the shirt. Physical Signs of Gang Membership (cont.):  Physical Signs of Gang Membership (cont.) PANTS The color and style of pants may or may not be important; blue, black and khaki pants are popular. How are the pants worn? If a belt is being worn is the buckle facing to the left or the right. COATS/JACKETS University and Professional sports teams jackets are popular. SHOES Plain high top and low top basketball shoes are popular. Doc Martin and military style lace-up boots are popular with Skinheads. Look at the color and name brand of the shoes along with the color of the shoelaces. Physical Signs of Gang Membership (cont.):  Physical Signs of Gang Membership (cont.) BANDANAS/TOWELS Notice how the bandana is folded and the color. Gang members have started carrying face towels in the gangs colors due to the attention being brought by the bandanas. GRAFFITI Check for graffiti on school books, papers, clothing, etc. JEWELRY Neck chains are the most popular. Also look at ring and earring styles. They may depict violence or wealth. Physical Signs of Gang Membership (cont.):  Physical Signs of Gang Membership (cont.) TATTOOS Tattoos may identify the person as a gang member by showing the gang’s initials, gang sign or the name of a fallen gang member. Tattoos may also show the members street name or the 3 dots. SPEECH Prolong use of gang slang during a conversation is an indicator of gang association or awareness. Graffiti :  Graffiti First indication of gang activity Newspaper of the streets Used to mark turf Declares allegiance to the gang Advertises the gang’s power or status Challenge to rivals: by crossing out rival gang/RIH Occasionally will contain street names of gang members Used to pay respect to fallen gang members Report graffiti to law enforcement Cleanup as soon as possible: leaving it there implies that the gang is accepted Graffiti Examples:  Graffiti Examples Alphabets:  Alphabets Alphabets (cont.):  Alphabets (cont.) Tattoos :  Tattoos Show allegiance to the gang Usually contain name of the gang Members street names Three dot tattoos: Mi Vida Loca/My Crazy Life Thespian faces: Smile Now, Cry Later Hand Signs:  Hand Signs Cryptic messages Usually in the form of a letter Originated with Black Gangs Used to tell a story, challenge rival gangs, and brag Identifies which gang a gang member belongs to Types of Gangs:  Types of Gangs Social Gang Relatively permanent group that hangs out at a specific location Members have a sense of camaraderie Often engage in organized group activities Usually the more stable youths with norms and values of society in general Delinquent Gang Organized for monetary gain from delinquent activities Members depend on one another to carry out activities and provide back-up Most common type Violent Gang Obtain emotional gratification from violent activities Tend to be emotionally unstable: have a need to control others Tend to overestimate their importance, size, and power Usually have inner group violence Gang Behaviors:  Gang Behaviors Creatures of habit Always have a back-up Natural fear of failure Love to brag Documentation of crimes in graffiti and personal writings Perceive fear as respect Major Gang Nations:  Major Gang Nations Crips Formed in 1968 by black high school students Ray Washington and Stanley “Tookie” Williams in Compton, California ghettos Identify with the color blue Align themselves with the Folk Nation Enemies of Bloods and People Nation Refer to Bloods as “Slobs” or “Blobs” Major Gang Nations:  Major Gang Nations Folk Nation Formed in late 60’s by David Barksdale the founder of the Black Gangster Disciples in Chicago, Illinois Adopted the Jewish Star of David as main symbol in honor of Barksdale Motto “All is One” Identify to the right Pitchfork up means Mind, Body, and Soul coming together in one nation Align with the Crips Major Gang Nations:  Major Gang Nations Bloods/Pirus Formed in reaction to the Crips by Sylvester Scott and Vincent Owens Smaller than the Crips but more cohesive Violence makes up for the smaller numbers Identify with the color Red Align with the People Nation Enemies of the Crips and Folk Nation Refer to Crips as “Crabs” Major Gang Nations:  Major Gang Nations People Nation Formed by members of the Black P Stone Rangers in Chicago, Illinois Five point star is main symbol Identify with the number five Identify to the left Motto “All is Well” Pitchfork down Eye, Pyramid, Sun, and Half Crescent Moon symbols Gang Dress & Tattoos:  Gang Dress & Tattoos CRIP TATTOOS:  CRIP TATTOOS BLOOD TATTOOS:  BLOOD TATTOOS SUR 13 TATTOOS:  SUR 13 TATTOOS Gang Homework?:  Gang Homework? Gang Homework?:  Gang Homework? Gang Life:  Gang Life Three goals that parents and communities should seek to reduce the adverse impact of gangs, its associated violence and its devastating life-long impacts are: :  Three goals that parents and communities should seek to reduce the adverse impact of gangs, its associated violence and its devastating life-long impacts are: Raise your gang awareness level. Supervise your children. Get involved with your children, your neighborhood and your community.

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