Published on February 27, 2014
Theme “Major International Relations Theories” DG 6. Geopolitics and IR theories February 26th, 2014 Anna A. Dekalchuk, Lecturer at the Department of Applied Politics, Higher School of Economics – St. Petersburg
DG outline 1. 8-minute test 2. What is geopolitics? 3. Stages of geopolitics development 4. Stage 1 5. Stage 2 6. Stage 3 7. Stage 4 8. Stage 5
1. Multiple Choice Test 8 minutes, 10 questions, only one correct answer per question
2. What is geopolitics? GEOPOLITICS IS… •the theory of the state as a geographical organism or phenomenon in space (Rudolph Kjellen, 1916). •the new national science of the state,… a doctrine on the spatial determinism of all political processes, based on the broad foundations of geography, especially of political geography (Karl Haushofer). •a dogma,… the faith that the state is inherently entitled to its place in the sun (Derwent Whittlesey, 1939). •geography utilized for particular purposes that lie beyond the pursuit of knowledge (Richard Hartshorne, 1939).
2. What is geopolitics? GEOPOLITICS IS… •a combined study of human geography and applied political science… dating back to Aristotle, Montesquieu and Kant (Edmund Walsh, 1944). •the study of IR from a spatial or geographical perspective (Geoffrey Parker, 1998). •examination of the geographical assumptions, designations and understandings that enter the making of world politics (John Agnew, 1985).
2. What is geopolitics? GEOPOLITICS IS… •not having a singular, all-encompassing meaning or identity… [I]t is discourse, a culturally and politically varied way of describing, representing and writing about geography and international politics (Gearold O’Tuathail, 1998). •a mode of analysis, relating diversity in content and scale of geographical settings to exercise of political power, and indentifying spatial framework though which power flows. Where do these definitions differ? What definition do you like the most?
3. STAGE STAGE STAGE STAGE STAGE Stages of modern geopolitcs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. THE RACE FOR IMPERIAL HEGEMONY GERMAN GEOPOLITIK AMERICAN GEOPOLITICS THE COLD WAR-STATE-CENTRISM VS. UNIVERSALISM POST COLD-WAR PERIOD
4. STAGE 1 Coined the term in 1899 Halford Mackinder (1861-1947) Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904) Alfred Mahan (1849-1914) Isaiah Bowman (1878-1949) Rudolph Kjellen (1864-1922) influenced by their era of intense nationalism, state expansionism, and overseas empire building as well as by social Darwinism What is social Darwinism?
4. o o o o o o o o STAGE 1 Of German origin. His works present a scientific basis for states expansionist doctrines (take the rise of Germany at that time into account). A state as an organism fixed in the soil whose spirit derives from mankind’s ties to the land. Focus on space and location. Space is dependent upon and contributing to the political character of groups living in the space. Location provides space with its uniqueness. Frontiers are the “skins” or peripheral organs of states, reflecting growth and decline. When correlated with continental areas organized under a single government, states generate vast political power. Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904)
4. STAGE 1 o o o o o Halford Mackinder (1861-1947) o Of British origin. His works reflect his concern over supremacy of transcontinental rail over ships (UK) in terms of time and reach (=> the rise of Eurasian continental states as a threat to British world hegemony). Initially focus on advantages of centrality of place and efficient movement of ideas, goods and people. The world as a closed system => nothing could be altered without changing the balance of all, and rule of the world still rested upon force, notwithstanding the juridical assumptions of equality among sovereign states. The league of Nations and the balance of power. He was strongly committed to cooperation among states, democratization of the empire into a Commonwealth of Nations, and preservation of small states.
4. STAGE 1 o o o o o o Halford Mackinder (1861-1947) o 1904: the “Pivot Area” is the inner area of Eurasia, characterized by interior or polar drainage and unreachable for sea powers. 1904: The rule of the heart of the world’s greatest landmass could become the basis for world domination (Russia+Germany, or China vs. Maritime world). 1919: enlarged his map to include Eastern Europe as Inner Eurasia’s strategic annex. 1919: “Who rules Eastern Europe commands the Heartland: Who rules the Heartland commands World-Island: Who rules WorldIsland commands the world”. 1919: Mitteleuropa is central and is as accessible to Germany as it is to Russia. 1943: five balancing units within the world system (North Atlantic – Midland Ocean; Asian Heartland powers; Monsoonal lands of India and China; South Atlantic; Mantle of Vacancies – from Sahara to Central Asia). 1943: discarded his 1919 dictum.
4. STAGE 1 Halford Mackinder’s Pivot Area, 1904
4. STAGE 1 Halford Mackinder’s Hearltand, 1919
4. o o o o o STAGE 1 Of American origin. His works reflect his idea that sea movement is superior to land movement, however, he also sees Eurasia as the most important component of the northern land hemisphere (and Russia in particular). Critical zone of conflict is between 30th and 40th parallels in Asia, where Russian land power and British sea power met (so, AngloAmerican alliance). The US lay within the Western half of the twofold global framework – the Oriental (Asian) being the other half. He promoted the idea of the end of the US isolationism. Alfred Mahan (1849-1914)
4. STAGE 1 o o o o o Isaiah Bowman (1878-1949) Of American origin. He was Woodrow Wilson policy adviser. The League of Nations is not in itself the framework for a new world => There is a need for different leagues emerging for functional purposes, each designed to advance cooperation plans that would reduce the causes for international trouble (there is a need for coordinated international action). Absolutely functional logic as David Mitrani had.
5. STAGE 2 Karl Haushofer (1869-1946) Rudolph Hess
5. o o o o o o o o STAGE 2 Of German origin. Journal for Geopolitics (Zeitschrift fur Geopolitik, 1924-1939) and the Institute for Geopolitics at the University of Munich. Idea was to undo Versailles by restoring the lost territories and rebuilding Germany as a world power (and no pretense of objectivity). Not the original thinker (Ratzel, Kjellen, Mackinder). Lebensraum (living space) and autarchy – slogans for conflicts and total war. Borrowed ideas: Ratzel’s large states, Mackinder’s World-Island, and panregions. Doctrines blut und boden (blood and soil) and rasse and raum (race and space) – Nazi ideology foundations. Close links to Rudolph Hess (Hitler’s Deputy Fuhrer). Karl Haushofer (1869-1946)
6. STAGE 3 Alexander de Seversky Nicholas Spykman George Renner (1894-1974) (1893-1943) Rinland theory (Eurasian coastal Attention to the North pole and air lanes lands): “Who controls the Rimland rules Eurasia; who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world”
7. STAGE 4: state-centrism George Kennan (1904-2005) “The long telegram” 1946 => the Truman doctrine 1947 and the policy of containment William Bullit (1891-1967) “Domino theory” (1947) Henry Kissenger (born 1923) Balance-of-power linkage Zbigniew Brzezinski (born 1928) “Linchpin” states COMES FROM POLITICS AND POLITICAL SCIENCE
7. STAGE 4: universalism THREE APPROACHES TO UNIVERSALISTIC GEOPOLITCS: o Polycentric, international power system (S. B. Cohen, G.R. Chrone); o Unitary, economically based world sysstem (P. Taylor); o Environmental and socially ordered geopolitics (Y. LaCoste). COMES FROM POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
8. STAGE 5: post-cold war EARLY 90S: o Francis Fukuyama’s ideas over universal, homogeneous world; o American politicians-drive geopolitics of US global hegemony; o Robert Kaplan’s geopolitics of anarchy (North-South divide and the “Last map”). CONTEMPORARY GEOPOLITICS: o Brzezinski’s Chessboard (politics-driven state-centric disciple); o Huntington’s Clash of civilizations (politics-driven state-centric disciple); o Critical geopolitics of Agnew and O’Tuathail (geography-driven universalistic disciple).
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