Deviance in Sport

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Information about Deviance in Sport

Published on January 14, 2009

Author: aSGuest10516


Deviance in Sport : Deviance in Sport Coakley, J. (2004). Sports in society: Issues and Controversies. 8th ed. New York: McGraw- Hill. Deviance in Sport : Deviance in Sport Defining Deviance in Sport Studying Deviance in Sport Deviance Among Athletes Deviant Overconformity in Sports Implications of Deviance in Sport Deviance in Sport : Deviance in Sport Difficulties associated with studying deviance Deviance in sport can not be described by a single theory Deviance in sport is not always congruent with deviance in society Unquestioned acceptance of norms Training and performance have become “medicalized” Defining and Studying Deviance in Sport : Defining and Studying Deviance in Sport Three primary approaches Functionalist Theory Conflict Theory Interactionist and Critical Theories Functionalist Theory : Functionalist Theory Deviance disrupts shared values Deviance-failure to conform Departure from cultural ideals Failure to learn and internalize cultural beliefs and norms Conflicts and strains within society Sport’s cultural ideals and norms Improving skills, reaching goals, commitment Deviance results from rejecting sport norms Problems with Functionalist Theory Conflict Theory : Conflict Theory Deviance interferes with the interests of people with economic power Deviance-behavior that violates interests of people with power Social order and norms are based on those who hold the most power Violation results in deviance Individuals without power are disadvantaged Sport’s norms and rules represent those of power and ignore athletes Athletes as victims that are forced to be deviant Problems with Conflict Theory Interactionist and Critical Theories : Interactionist and Critical Theories Deviance is based on social processes and power relations Deviance-ideas, behaviors and characteristics outside of the normally accepted range Continuum of deviance: Underconformity-ignoring or rejecting norms Overconformity-unquestioned acceptance Normal range of acceptance falls between underconformity and overconformity Calls attention to Sport Ethic Sport Ethic : Sport Ethic Norms accepted as the dominant criteria for defining an athlete An athlete makes sacrifices for the game An athlete strives for distinction An athlete accepts risks and plays through pain An athlete accepts no limits in the pursuit of possibilities Deviant Overconformity : Deviant Overconformity Reasons for deviant overconformity Athletes will do anything to participate as long as possible Praise, accolades and rewards associated with overconformity Drama and excitement Establishment of strong bonds Deviant Overconformity : Deviant Overconformity Common characteristics of overconformers Low self-esteem Eager for acceptance Chance for achievement and establishing oneself Group demands and memberships Deviant Overconformity : Deviant Overconformity Linkage between deviant overconformity to the sport ethic and deviant underconformity within society Binge drinking, group crimes, harassment, coercing other to engage in deviant behavior Controlling deviant overconformity Deviant overconformity is often advantageous for coaches, parents, sponsors, owners, etc. Control requires a commitment to the establishment of acceptable limits Deviance in Sport : Deviance in Sport Deviance on the field and in sport settings Cheating, gambling, point shaving, throwing games, fighting, performance-enhancing drugs, etc. Deviance off the field and outside of sport settings Arrests, criminal activity, academic cheating, alcohol use and abuse, etc. Athlete vs. non-athlete rate of occurrence Deviance Beyond the Athlete : Deviance Beyond the Athlete Coaches School and Sport Team Administrators Sport Team Owners Judges and officials Team managers and staff Media promoters and commentators Agents Parents Spectators Performance-Enhancing Substances : Performance-Enhancing Substances Expression of overcommitment to the sport ethic Difficult to define and ban Legal (aspirin) and illegal (heroin) substances Natural or synthetic Harmless or dangerous Physical changes, psychological changes, or both International Olympic Committee (IOC) definition Professional Sport Leagues, NCAA, High Schools Endless game of “hide and seek” Performance-Enhancing Substances : Performance-Enhancing Substances Why do athletes continue to look to performance-enhancing substances? Drug Testing Cons Ineffective Violation of rights and privacy Pros Health of athletes Integrity of sport Drug use is illegal and must be controlled Controlling Deviant Overconformity : Controlling Deviant Overconformity Recommendations Examine the nature of elite and high performance sports Rules and regulations Educational programs Code of ethics Deviance in Sport : Deviance in Sport Definitions of deviance in sport No one theory can explain deviance Deviance in sport vs. deviance in society Overconformity Sport ethic Performance-enhancing substances Drug testing Controlling deviant overconformity

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