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Development Of The Branchial Arches

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Information about Development Of The Branchial Arches
Health & Medicine

Published on October 13, 2008

Author: Alethea

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Course in facial development for European Course in Neuroradiology in Tarragona, Spain, originally on 12 octobre 2008. Revised for November, 2010. For questions, e-mail to etchevers at free dot fr. Download for the animations to take place, as some pictures are covered by others.
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Development of the branchial arches Heather Etchevers, Ph.D. INSERM

Relation of face to pharynx frontonasal bud maxillary process mandibular process

Pharyngeal arches are also known as branchial or aortic The embryonic dorsal aortae are paired before later fusing at the midline

Pharyngeal arches The arches are metameric structures numbered 1 to 4 and 6 in humans “ #5” does not exist as a separate entity Each arch is built around the cage of aortic arches between ventral and dorsal aortae Each pair = unique complement of: Muscles and connective tissue Nerves Cartilage (bone for PA1-3) Segment of the branchial arterial tree Endodermal anlage to the neck glands

The arches are metameric structures numbered 1 to 4 and 6 in humans

“ #5” does not exist as a separate entity

Each arch is built around the cage of aortic arches between ventral and dorsal aortae

Each pair = unique complement of:

Muscles and connective tissue

Nerves

Cartilage (bone for PA1-3)

Segment of the branchial arterial tree

Endodermal anlage to the neck glands

The first aortic arch is the precursor to all pharyngeal arches Ventral view, human embryonic heart

Rostrocaudal maturation of arches Detrait and Etchevers, 2005

All pharyngeal arch arteries are never present at once Constant remodeling during embryonic life Growth factor guidance of endothelial cells Immature mural coverage Flow pressures and hemodynamics Obliterated 1st PA Maxillary artery Right dorsal aorta Left dorsal aorta 1st PA 2nd PA 3rd PA 4th PA

Craniofacial evolution MOUTH MOUTH r e t i n a s e l e c t i o n o f N C C G n a t h o s t o m e M O U T H p r o s m e s

Volumes and surfaces Outer, notched ectoderm Inner, pouched-out endoderm Membranes where they meet Mesodermal core of muscle and vascular endothelium Neural crest mesenchyme hindbrain pros PA1 2 3 4 heart

Outer, notched ectoderm

Inner, pouched-out endoderm

Membranes where they meet

Mesodermal core of muscle and vascular endothelium

Neural crest mesenchyme

Pouches and grooves 1 2 Persists as tympanic membrane endoderm ectoderm Persists as intratonsillar cleft bpm midbrain 3

Endoderm and vascular development Dorsal aorta Arterial vitelline plexus Endoderm 1 st pharyngeal pouch Vitelline arteries Pharyngeal arch arteries Internal carotid Umbilical arteries

Endodermal expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1  HIF1  is a TF activated under hypoxic/growth conditions It effects transcription of pro-vascular factors such as VEGF, ET-1 Etchevers, 2003

HIF1  is a TF activated under hypoxic/growth conditions

It effects transcription of pro-vascular factors such as VEGF, ET-1

Endodermal derivatives of pouches Superior parathyroid glands 4 Inferior parathyroid glands and epithelium of thymus 3 Epithelium of tonsil 2 Epithelium of tympanic cavity and auditory tube 1 Derivative Pharyngeal endoderm

 

Tongue and salivary glands Contributions from most arches Endoderm and mesoderm First oral anterior 2/3 Second Surface contribution not maintained; tonsillar crypts Third pharyngeal posterior 1/3 Fourth Epiglottis and vicinity The salivary glands are ectodermal ingrowths of the oral cavity that associate with NC mesenchyme

Contributions from most arches

Endoderm and mesoderm

First

oral anterior 2/3

Second

Surface contribution not maintained; tonsillar crypts

Third

pharyngeal posterior 1/3

Fourth

Epiglottis and vicinity

The salivary glands are ectodermal ingrowths of the oral cavity that associate with NC mesenchyme

Structural derivatives Maxillary, palatine, jugal trabecula cranii Superior oblique Abducens Oculomotor muscles Trigeminal nerve (V) 1 Maxillary Incus, ant. lig of malleus palatoquadrate Meckel’s cartilage Muscles of mastication Tensor tympanis Digastric (anterior belly) Trigeminal nerve (V) 1 Mandibular Stapes, hyoid bone Reichert’s cartilage Muscles of facial expression, digastric (posterior belly), styloid Facial nerve (VII) 2 Hyoid Horns of hyoid Thyroid cartilage stylopharyngeas Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) 3 Cricoid cartilage Striated muscles of oesophagus Laryngeal branches of vagus nerve (X) 4 and 6 Skeletal Derivative Muscle derivative Cranial Nerve Pharyngeal Arch

Cartilage derivatives of arches in 24 wk foetus

Hox segment identity genes are incompatible with facial skeleton Creuzet et al. (2002) Couly et al. 1993

Chicken head vessels are in two sectors

Vascular derivatives - tentative Right proximal pulmonary Left proximal pulmonary Ductus arteriosis 6th Right subclavian (R) Aorta (L) 4th Common and internal carotids 3rd Stapedial 2 nd hyoid Maxillary, mandibular 1 st mandibular Ophthalmic, ethmoid, ramus superior of stapedial 1 st maxillary (shared artery with mandibular) Veins? Arteries Pharyngeal arch

The “cardiac” neural crest is a subpopulation of the cephalic crest

Heart participation of NCC is necessary but transitory © K Sulik and coll.

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum a.k.a. First arch or Goldenhar syndrome, hemifacial microsomia – though can be bilateral Malformation of jaws, ears and face Experimentally induced by hemorrhage of 2 nd pharyngeal arch Fortuitous genetic mouse model Often overlaps with DiGeorge, VACTERL…

a.k.a. First arch or Goldenhar syndrome, hemifacial microsomia – though can be bilateral

Malformation of jaws, ears and face

Experimentally induced by hemorrhage of 2 nd pharyngeal arch

Fortuitous genetic mouse model

Often overlaps with DiGeorge, VACTERL…

Goldenhar, First arch, hemifacial microsomia, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (MIM 164210) Axial 1-mm 3D FT-CISS MR image through temporal bones. Lemmerling et al., AJNR 2000. Universitätsklinikum Jena semi- circular canals (L) enlarged vestibular aqueduct (R)

Cardiovascular defects in DGS

Main points Pharyngeal arches are metameric structures They each contain all germ layers, each of which contributes to distinct structures for each arch Hox genes confer identity to differentiate them like for other metameric structures (eg. somites) not with respect to the facial skeleton Arch, facial and heart development are linked

Pharyngeal arches are metameric structures

They each contain all germ layers, each of which contributes to distinct structures for each arch

Hox genes confer identity to differentiate them

like for other metameric structures (eg. somites)

not with respect to the facial skeleton

Arch, facial and heart development are linked

Save the trees! Save your memory! I will make this Powerpoint presentation available and downloadable as of next week on SlideShare. http://www.slideshare.net/Alethea Please comply with fair use (cf Wikipedia if you need to) as the images and photographs are copyrighted by their authors. I will correct any lacunae in attributions if you leave a comment.

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