Development of behavior

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Published on October 11, 2007

Author: Heather

Source: authorstream.com

Behavioral Development:  Behavioral Development A man in nothing but a pattern of his homeland views. The mind goes from mastery to enslavement, Again and again, using the instruments of its own freedom to bind itself in chains. You have changed! The sparkle in your eyes is gone your smile is just a candid yawn You are breaking my heart – You have changed… Behavioral development as an extension of embryology:  Behavioral development as an extension of embryology Embryogenesis of a chick:  Embryogenesis of a chick Slide6:  Development of frog embryo Slide7:  More of frog embryos The development of song structure:  The development of song structure Behavioral development:  Behavioral development Gradual progression from the plastic, undifferentiated behavior to the structured and rigid (stereotyped) pattern As in embriogenesis, behavioral development is not merely an unfolding of the genetic code, but a result of dynamic interactions between the organism and the environment. An example: behavioral development in the crocodile:  An example: behavioral development in the crocodile Hatching: no parental feeding but intensive parental guarding The hatchling is moved to a save kindergarten area Predation rate is above 90% The tiny crocodile hunt insects Then it hunt frogs Then it hunt fish Then it hunt wildebeest… Sensory-motor constraints during development:  Sensory-motor constraints during development Behavioral development does not always make functional sense since different subsystems mature at different times – even during late childhood. Hence, just like the body organs, behavioral pattern appears, go through an excessive expression phase, and then stabilize and become functional Beating heart :  Beating heart Slide16:  First movements Slide17:  First moments after hatching: Am I free already? Slide18:  Yap, I am. Slide20:  Hatching behavior Stereotypic head and leg movements Those movements disappears after hatching Homeostasis of behavioral development:  Homeostasis of behavioral development Neoteny:  Neoteny We will see shortly how neotony can be a controlled variable for behavioral homeostasis in the bee colony Neotony also appears to be a feature of many domesticated animals – the dog is very much like the juvenile wolf Neotony in human – first because of head size constraints on delivery (birth canal is too small) and then as a key feature for prolonged behavioral plasticity Slide35:  Play behavior Types of play behavior:  Types of play behavior locomotor/rotational play (running, leaping, sliding, brachiating) object play (manipulating, pulling, pushing, chewing) social play (rough and tumble, chasing) – only in social animals why should animals devote time and effort to play?:  why should animals devote time and effort to play? Theory: it is an instinctive ontogenetic process preparing the animal for later life by perfecting the performance of critical behavioral patterns Play in ants:  Play in ants Observations of ants wrestling and playing hide and seek are now interpreted as aggressive competition. Those behaviors are dismissed from the category of play because they are presumed to be serious and functional. Behavior patterns that have current value versus those with "delayed" benefits Slide39:  social play is a widespread phenomenon, especially among mammals Play is all motor activity that appears to be purposeless, in which motor patterns from other contexts may often be used in modified forms and altered temporal sequencing. If the activity is directed toward another living being it is called social play A terrible definition! Slide40:  Why engage in social play? socialization exercise motor development practice cognitive development species differences age differences sex differences Play-fighting considered important in learning fighting skills that would be used in adulthood or for physical training But play-fighting does not improve fighting skills in some rats practice in nest-building: instinct – vacuum activity! Slide41:  High brain activity during play Elevated levels of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine during play Glucocorticoides increase play in rats Is play a pleasurable activity for nonhumans? Play include behaviors that appears during: predatory behavior antipredatory behavior mating But this does not prove any function play-soliciting signals :  play-soliciting signals play bow: infant coyotes, wolves, and domestic dogs communicate "what follows is play" Slide43:  Play in wolfs Slide45:  Play with your dog Slide46:  Play in lions Slide47:  No, this is not a play behavior Slide48:  Sport Slide49:  Play in cats: mostly object oriented Slide53:  Play in rats Play in rodents:  Play in rodents Slide55:  Play for the cat, tears for the mouse… Slide56:  Play behavior? Slide57:  Got him! Slide58:  CATDOG Behavioral development at the population level:  Behavioral development at the population level Slide61:  Social bees Three caste system -Queen -Worker bee -Drone Worker tasks Age dependent division of labor :  division of labor A key feature of the division of labor in insect colonies is its plasticity. Colonies respond to changing internal and external conditions by adjusting the ratios of individual workers engaged in the various tasks. This is accomplished in large part via the behavioral flexibility of the individual workers colony behavioral integration :  colony behavioral integration elaborate nests potent defense strategies sophisticated techniques of foraging Intricate but flexible systems of division of labor involve the collective endeavors of perhaps thousands of workers. But it is unlikely that each individual can monitor the state of its whole colony and then perform the tasks that are needed most. A wonderful example of self-organization, unsupervised learning on a colony level Social inhibition and development as a solution:  Social inhibition and development as a solution there is no evidence for the occurrence of colony "leaders“ age-related division of labor -- Age polyethism Slide65:  great plasticity in behavioral development, accelerating, delaying, or even reversing their trajectories in response to the needs of their colony Developmental rate is controlled globally – how? Slide66:  older bees inhibit behavioral development in younger bees. Mechanism is unknown, but is probably mediated by a mandibular gland pheromone Starvation also speeds up maturation Pheromones produced by the queen and the brood delay maturation, which might improve the phase of life devoted to nursing the brood. Slide70:  Changes in Labor Patterns Across the Life of a Worker Honeybee. (From Seeley 1985) Slide71:  Correlation Between Behavioral Status and Juvenile Hormone in Honey Bees. Juvenile Hormone levels Pre-determined genetic factors control behavior of honey bee workers? Figure obtained from Robinson G., and Vargo E. 1997 Conclusions:  Conclusions ·        JH is involved a colony integrating mechanism. ·        Suggests that insect colonies cope with constant variation in age demography and resource availability ·        Environmental modulation of endogenous JH titers affect worker behavior. ·        Cues associated with colony age demography probably affect neurohormones that modulate the rise in JH and accelerate or retard worker behavioral development. ·        Genetic variability exists for individual behavior plasticity. Poincarre view of cognitive development:  Poincarre view of cognitive development The task – develop survival skills by being able to behave properly in time and space The animal develop it’s behavior via experience that give rise to concept of space and time – not the physical ones…

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