Development of a creativity identification & attitudes scale

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Information about Development of a creativity identification & attitudes scale

Published on September 7, 2015

Author: scottfurtwengler

Source: slideshare.net

1. Development of a Creativity Identification & Attitudes Scale: A Pilot Study using EFA Scott R. Furtwengler, PhD Brazosport College ECER/WERA 2015 Budapest, Hungary

2. Outline  Overview  Introduction  Methods  Results  Discussion  Questions

3. Overview  Pilot study – Possible latent factors associated with bias against creativity & creative identification  Exploratory Factor Analysis  Creativity Identification & Attitudes Scale  Two Salient Factors emerged – creative averse and creative approach

4. Introduction  The problem: Deficit in creativity/innovation

5. Introduction: Lit. Review  Creativity covaries with mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) & intellectual disability (autism spectrum disorder), yet no causal relationship has been established (Jamison, 2011; Kyaga, et al., 2013; Ludwig, 1989, 1992; Richards, et al, 1988; Richards & Kinney, 1990).

6. Introduction: Lit. Review  A stigma exists against people with mental illness that has been well-documented across cultures and within populations (Clark, et al., 2013; Cummings, Lucas, & Druss, 2013; Girma, et al., 2013A; Girma, et al. 2013B; Jamison, 2006; Perry, 2014; Yang, et al., 2014).  Persons with mental illness are likely to avoid or delay treatment is because of the prejudice against persons with mental illness and the expectation of being discriminated against (Henderson, Evans-Lacko, & Thornicroft, 2013).

7. Introduction: Lit. Review  Innovation resistance (Adarves-Yorno, et al., 2008)  Uncertainty avoidance (Mueller, et al., 2012)  Do such perspectives cause individuals who would otherwise identify as creative to self-censor or suppress their creative identification, ideation, or expression?

8. Introduction: Theoretical Framework  Social identity theory (Tajfel, 1978; Tajfel & Turner, 1979; Turner, 1975) provides a theoretical framework to explore the social influences, specifically in-group bias, on divergent and convergent thinking.  When an individual’s perceives that he or she is not a typical group member or is not fully accepted as part of the group, the individual’s sense of in-group inclusion is threatened (Pickett & Brewer, 2005).

9. Introduction  The problem: Deficit in creativity/innovation  Hypothesis: There is an underlying psychological construct, a bias against innovation, influencing the deficit in creativity.  Research Question: Can the researchers develop a scale to measure 1) latent attitudes toward creativity and 2) the extent to which individuals identify as creative?

10. Methods  Participants & Data Collection – Snowball sampling via social media (Facebook, Twitter, & LinkedIn) and academic programs.  Instrument – Creativity Identification & Attitudes Scale (CIAS)  Analysis – Exploratory Factor Analysis, specifically, minimum rank factor analysis with oblique (Promin) rotation

11. Results Rotated Factor Loading Matrix from Exploratory Factor Analysis with Promin Rotation with Associated Eigenvalues (N = 237) Factor Loading Variable 1 2 3 Communality 11. Creative people interrupt the workflow. .62 .52 23. Creative individuals are a threat to traditional values. .55 .45 12. Creative people are dishonest. .52 .48 5. I do not trust creative people. .52 .49 8. Creative people are strange. .51 .57 7. I would prefer not to let others see my creative side. .38 .44 3. Creative people add value to our organization. .82 .78 13. Creativity and innovation are necessary for a strong economy. .72 .78 14. I would like to be more creative. .68 .79 6. I prefer to be around people who are creative. .63 .65 4. Creative people are good at problem solving. .59 .62 17. Society imposes too many rules on me. .40 .54 27. Taking risks makes life more exciting. .35 .51 16. I would prefer to work alone. .33 .29 20. The idea of change excites me. -.76 .78 21. I do not like the notion of change. .65 .48 Eigenvalues 3.80 1.91 0.85 % of Variance 37.32 18.76 8.31 Coefficient Alpha .75 .87 .74 Notes: Factor loadings below .30 are excluded. Factor 1 = creative averse. Factor 2 = creative approach.

12. Discussion  Social identity theory (Tajfel, 1978; Tajfel & Turner, 1979; Turner, 1975) provides an appropriate theoretical framework  Evidence for a latent factor, creative averse, representing bias against creativity and creative individuals  Supports the notion of innovation resistance (Adarves-Yorno, et al., 2008) and  Uncertainty avoidance (Mueller, et al., 2012)

13. Discussion: Implications  The presence of creative averse may influence behavior with regard to threats to individuals’ sense of in-group inclusion (Pickett & Brewer, 2005).  High-stakes testing and scripted curricula have impeded creativity in teaching and learning (Henriksen & Mishra, 2015). This may carry over to university.

14. Discussion: Implications  Research has indicated that teachers prefer traits such as conformity and unquestioning acceptance of authority (Bachtold, 1974; Cropley, 1992; Dettmer, 1981; Getzels & Jackson, 1962; & Torrance, 1963 as cited in Westby & Dawson, 1995).  Students and teachers can be more conscientious of creative averse biases and environments. Administrators can and should give teachers the latitude to be creative without fear of reprisal.

15. Future research  Determine the frequency and extent to which students may be inclined to self- censoring of creative ideation.  Develop more reliable and valid scales to target those who identify as creative.  Administer interventions at the student, classroom, school, and district levels that enhance creative ideation and expression.

16. Limitations  Sample size  Sample homogeneity  Items

17. Questions?

18. References  Adarves-Yorno, I., Haslam, S., & Postmes, T. (2008). And now for something completely different? The impact of group membership on perceptions of creativity. Social Influence, 3, 248-266.  Henriksen, D., & Mishra, P. (2015). We teach who we are: Creativity in the lives and practices of accomplished teachers. Teachers College Record Volume 117 Number 7, 2015, p. 1-46 http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 17947.  Mueller, J., Melwani, S., Goncalo, J. (2012). The bias against creativity: Why people desire yet reject creative ideas. Psychological Science, 21, 13-17.  Pickett, C. L., & Brewer, M. B. (2005). The role of exclusion in maintaining in-group inclusion. In D. Abrams, M. Hogg, & J. Marques (Eds.), Social psychology of inclusion and exclusion (pp. 89–112). New York: Psychology Press.  Tajfel, H. (1978). Social categorization, social identity and social comparison. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Differentiation between social groups (pp. 61–76). London: Academic Press.  Tajfel, H., & Turner. J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), Social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Chicago: Nelson.  Turner, J. (1975). Social comparison and social identity: Some prospects for intergroup behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 5, 5–34.  Westby, E., & Dawson, V. (1995). Creativity: Asset or burden in the classroom. Creativity Research Journal, 8, 1-10.

19. Contact Scott R. Furtwengler sfurtwengler@gmail.com scott.furtwengler@brazosport.edu srfurtwengler@uh.edu www.scottfurtwengler.com

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