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Developing Critical Thinking

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Information about Developing Critical Thinking
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Published on October 20, 2008

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Developing Critical Thinking in Student Clinicians: The Role of Questions : Developing Critical Thinking in Student Clinicians: The Role of Questions Elizabeth Gavett, MA, CCC-SLP Boston University Ruth Peaper, M Ed, CCC-SLP University of New Hampshire SETTING THE STAGE : SETTING THE STAGE Think about critical thinking: What is it? Examine the role questioning behavior plays in critical thinking. Analyze supervisor & supervisee questions. Contentions : Contentions We supervise more effectively and efficiently when we are aware of the assumptions behind the questions we pose. Questions posed by students offer a valuable window into their understanding of the clinical process and disorder knowledge. The quality of thinking is reflected in the quality of questions. Slide 4: COMPONENTS Understanding Planning Observation Analyzing Integrating What is Critical Thinking? : What is Critical Thinking? A unique kind of purposeful thinking In which the thinker systematically and habitually Imposes criteria and intellectual standards upon the thinking Taking charge of the construction of thinking Guiding the construction of the thinking according to the standards Critical Thinking (cont’d) : Critical Thinking (cont’d) Assessing the effectiveness of the thinking according to the purpose, the criteria and the standards. [From: Paul, R. (1993). Critical Thinking, 3rd Edition. Santa Rosa, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.] CORE CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS : CORE CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS Inference Explanation Interpretation Analysis Evaluation Self-regulation [Facione, Facione, Giancarlo, 2000] DISPOSITION TOWARD CRITICAL THINKING : DISPOSITION TOWARD CRITICAL THINKING Inquisitive Systematic Judicious Analytical Truth seeking Open-minded Confident in Reasoning [Facione, Facione, & Giancarlo, 2000] APPLICATION TO CLINICAL PRACTICE : APPLICATION TO CLINICAL PRACTICE Clinical thinking IS critical thinking! Slide 10: Bloom’s Taxonomy: 6 Levels of Complexity in Behavior Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Bloom’s Taxonomy (Cont’d) : Bloom’s Taxonomy (Cont’d) Knowledge: Recall of information [list, describe, identify, name] ∙ Comprehension: Understanding information [ discuss, summarize, contrast] ∙ Application: Use information [apply, illustrate, demonstrate] Bloom’s Taxonomy (Cont’d) : Bloom’s Taxonomy (Cont’d) Analysis: Application of knowledge to a new situation. [Analyze, separate, order] Synthesis: Bringing together parts. [integrate, formulate, generalize] Evaluation: Judgments about the value. [assess, judge, convince] Bloom’s Taxonomy (Cont’d) : Bloom’s Taxonomy (Cont’d) Lower Level (Foundation behaviors) Knowledge Comprehension Application Higher Level (Putting it all together) Analysis Synthesis Evaluation How can we use Bloom’s framework for question asking? : How can we use Bloom’s framework for question asking? Become aware of the complexity of our questions and modify when necessary. Become aware of potential gaps in student foundation knowledge. Become aware of the complexity level in supervisee’s questions and track over time. Eureka Moment : Eureka Moment Designing the Instructional Process to Enhance Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Inquiring Minds Really Do Want to Know: Using Questioning to Teach Critical Thinking. (King, A., 1995) Article offers a pedagogical process and specific methodology (questions) for encouraging critical thinking. Inquiry Based Instruction vs. Inquiry Based Learning : Inquiry Based Instruction vs. Inquiry Based Learning Inquiry based learning structured around questions posed. If questions posed are primarily factual, learning will not progress beyond the factual level. Learning improved when questions stimulate students to use the facts for analysis, prediction, synthesis, evaluation and inferencing. New clinicians need to begin to ask these question of themselves – How do we facilitate? Why Should Supervisors Examine Their Questions? : Why Should Supervisors Examine Their Questions? Supervisor questions can: 1. Provide a model for how an expert clinician reasons. 2. Provide structure for supervisees as they begin to make connections between theory and practice. 3. Challenge students to think beyond a specific client toward broader applications. Modeling: Supervisor “Self-Talk” : Modeling: Supervisor “Self-Talk” Supervisors “think out loud” throughout the day. “The reason I…….” “I wonder if……” Pose the questions for yourself that require making connections - go beyond factually based questions. Questions that will require us to model the kind of thinking we want to develop in our students. Let students see that the process can be complex and sometimes messy even for proficient/expert clinicians. Sample Question Stems King, 1995 : Sample Question Stems King, 1995 What do we already know about….? Activation of prior knowledge How could ……be used to…..? Application What is the difference between…… and…..? Compare/contrast What are the pro/cons of……..? Analysis/inferencing Sample Question Stems (cont.) : Sample Question Stems (cont.) How does……effect? Analysis of relationship (cause-effect) Explain why………occurred? Analysis of situations Why is ……..important? Analysis of significance What is a counterargument to………? Rebuttal Sample Question Stems (cont.) : Sample Question Stems (cont.) What would happen if…..? Analysis/inferencing What is the best…..and why? Evaluation and provision of evidence What is a solution to this problem? Synthesis What is another way to look at? Considering other perspectives (King, 1995) Strategies for Using Questions in Your Setting : Strategies for Using Questions in Your Setting Consider asking supervisee to formulate questions on: Lesson Plans Session Management Summary Soap Notes or other Clinical Documentation Journal Entry End of Day Question Portfolio Reflections Bibliography : Bibliography Anderson, J. (1988). The supervisory process in speech-language pathology and audiology. Boston: College Hill Press. Bloom, B.S. (Ed) (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York, Toronto: Longmans, Green. Facione, P., Facione, N., & Giancarlo, G. (2000). The Disposition toward Critical Thinking: its Character, Measurement, and Relationship to Critical Thinking Skill. informal Logic, Vol. 20, No.1. King, A. (1995). Designing the instructional process to enhance critical thinking across the curriculum. Teaching of Psychology. Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 1-17. Paul, R. (1993). Critical thinking, 3rd edition. Santa Rosa, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Thank you! : Thank you!

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