Developing a Pedagogy of Technology in Physical Education

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Information about Developing a Pedagogy of Technology in Physical Education

Published on February 16, 2014

Author: DrAshCasey



Keynote presented at afPE London - February 14th 2014

Living Beyond the material world: Isn’t it time to develop a pedagogy of technology for physical education?

Dr Ashley Casey

“ the possibilities are endless; what is needed is imagination “” Fernández-Balboa, 2003

In considering the journey toward technological integration in Physical Education are we missing a vital step ?

Are we assuming that change is a A B

Are we assuming that change is a journey from A to B? A B

Are we forgetting that change is a often a journey from A to B? A B

Are we trying to start A B

straight at A B

and forgetting where we are now? A B

A B at the imagining?

“ If I don’t practice for a day, I know it. If I don’t practice for two days, the critics know it. And if I don’t practice for three days, the public knows it. “” Louis Armstrong

“ I'm not out there sweating for three hours every day just to find out what it feels like to sweat. “” Michael Jordan

“ The fight is won or lost far away from witnesses - behind the lines, in the gym, and out there on the road, long before I dance under those lights. “” Mohammad Ali


“ 10,000 hours. That is the difference between success and non-success, genius and mediocrity ” Gladwell 2008

So why when we get one of these ...

Do we expect to take it straight into our classrooms?

How many hours have we practice with it?

Are we putting the horse before the cart?

Are we putting the horse before the cart? Are we doing things in the wrong order?

Shouldn’t we decide what to do here?

before buying this...?

or at least bringing it in here?

In other words...

...are we putting the technology before the pedagogy?

Pedagogy 1 Text

Pedagogy 1 Text 2 Technology

Pedagogy Pedagogy of technology 1 3 Text 2 Technology

Pedagogy Pedagogy of technology 1 3 Text 2 4 Technology “Material World”

Pedagogy 1 Text

What is pedagogy?

What is pedagogy? hard “g”

What is pedagogy? soft “g”

“ pedagogy is under-defined, often referring to no more than a teaching style, a matter of personality and temperament, the mechanics of securing classroom control to encourage learning, “” Lusted, 1986

“ Yet pedagogy means different things in different langauages “” Tinning 2011

“ the roots of the term come from the ancient greek work Pedagogue “” Tinning 2011

“ a man having the oversight of a child or a youth, an attendant who led the boy from home to school, a man whose occupation is the instruction of children and youths “” Oxford English Dictionary, 1989

Yet the Greeks don’t use the term in this way

In the Czech Republic pedagogy is a negative term connected with the communist notion of the ideal state.

“ In Sweden it is a discipline that extends to the consideration of the development of health and bodily fitness, social and moral welfare, ethics and aesthetics... “” Tinning 2011

With these mixed meanings it is important to understand how I am interpreting the term pedagogy.

It appears that the word only really entered the mainstream vocabulary of education in the last decade

“ pedagogy [was originally] equated with teaching and instruction and didactics “” Tinning, 2011

“ [more recently] another term often used in conjunction with pedagogy is curriculum “” Tinning, 2011

These ideas move beyond ““” Pedagogy as the science of teaching Tinning 2011

Drawing on the European word ‘didactique’ “ The irreducible three way relationship linking teacher, students and a piece of knowledge to be taught and learned “” Amade-Escot 2006

“ The notion of pedagogy that we are working with here can be defined by its three key elements of learning, teaching and curriculum “” Kirk, Macdonald and O’Sullivan 2006





It becomes the place where teaching, learning and curriculum meet.

“ Pedagogy is the most profound relationship that an adult can have with a child “” Van Manen 1980

It is where we decide what we want to achieve here

By thinking about what ‘she’ needs

within a wider curriculum context

before we buy this

or at least use it here

Pedagogy 1 Text 2 Technology

“ Technology in education is commonly defined as a technical device or tool used to enhance instruction. “” Okojle, Ollnzock and Okejle-Boulder, 2006


Hardware Technology

Hardware Software Technology

Hardware Software Technology Fixed

Hardware Software Technology Fixed Portable

Hardware Software Technology Social Media Fixed Portable

Hardware Internet Software Technology Social Media Fixed Portable

??? ??? ??? Technology ??? ??? ???

“ It is difficult to imagine schools without technology “” Baert, 2012

“ We are currently preparing students for jobs that don’t yet exist, using technologies that haven’t yet been invented in order to solve problems that we haven’t identified as problems yet “” Richard Riley


“ the fact that the massive investment in technology has had such limited impact on enhancing student learning is worrying “” Tearle and Golder, 2008

But who ‘lives’ in our schools ?

Digital Natives Palfrey and Gasser 2008

“ Born digital...they all have access to networked digital technologies. And they all have the skills to use those technologies. “” Palfrey and Gasser 2008

Digital Settlers Palfrey and Gasser 2008

“ although not native to the digital environment...often quite sophisticated in their use of these technologies but they also rely on traditional analog interactions “” Palfrey and Gasser 2008

Digital Immigrants Palfrey and Gasser 2008

“ learnt how to email and use social networks late in life “” Palfrey and Gasser 2008

These are the people contesting the technological environment


“ Fullan (2013) argues that the digital lives of children are haphazard and occur either outside of the classroom (in the free spaces around school) or more significantly beyond the school gates but not in lessons. “” Casey, 2014

But why?

“ With the integration of technology into the daily lives of students, there is a concern of how well teachers are prepared to teach with technology “” Hasselbring et al, 2000

for many of the adults in schools and universities

“ technology is still an imposed and novel ‘outsider’ in the pedagogy of schools “” Watson, 2001

“ While technologies have been found useful within education, studies indicate that teachers do not feel prepared to use technology in their instruction “” McGovern, 2003

It seems essential that

“ [teachers] grasp this technological reality and use it both in and beyond the classroom. “” McNeill andFry, 2012

What is said about Technology in PE?

“ Although discipline-specific technology has been developed, generally, technology inclusion has not become commonplace in physical education “” Gibbone, Rukavina and Silverman, 2010

“ in the UK, the Government’s inspectorate, the Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED), recently concluded that few schools routinely use Information Communication Technology (ICT) in PE “” OfSTED, 2012

“ Furthermore, they suggested that of those schools who do use ICT less than 1 in 10 use it purposefully to engender student interest or to support learning. “” OfSTED, 2012

“ ... best ICT practice in physical education [was found to be] the use of interactive whiteboards, still images, digital cameras and video analysis. “” OfSTED, 2012

“ The majority of tools currently used are those related to traditional computer technologies “” Baert, 2012

“ the commonest use of ICT was to monitor, assess, record and report on pupils. “” Casey and Jones, 2011

“ OfSTED reported that less than 10% of the lessons observed used ICT to stimulate learning and engagement, and that few schools routinely used ICT in physical education. “” OfSTED, 2009

“ the most widely used piece of ICT equipment was a compact disc player “” Thomas and Stratton, 2006

“ computer technologies, pedometers and heart rate monitors were tools most often integrated “” Baert, 2012

“ The disparity between innovation and the current use of technology in physical education is stark. “” Casey and Jones, 2011

“ technology [is] in danger of becoming a box ticking exercise in which teachers argue that they “do that” rather than it being an aid to learning. “” Hastie, Casey and Tarter, 2010

“ it is deeply worrying that the massive investment in technology has had such limited impact on enhancing student learning “” Tearle and Golder, 2008

Pedagogy Pedagogy of technology 1 3 Text 2 Technology

“ The speed at which such tools are introduced into society makes one wonder about how technology is integrated within education in a way that it preserves the quality of effective instruction “” Baert, 2012

“ Successive Governments have recognised the importance of ITC in schools [yet] these technologies are only entering schools very slowly. “” Akkoyunlu, 2002

This is despite the fact that

“ ICT is often perceived as a catalyst for change, change in teaching style, change in learning approaches, and change in access to information. “” Watson, 2001


“ Using technology to enhance the educational process involves more than just learning how to use specific pieces of hardware and software. It requires an understanding of pedagogical principles that are specific to the use of technology in an instructional settings “” Diaz and Bontembal, 2000

“ in order to use educational technologies effectively, teachers should be trained in the use of technologies and their integration into the teaching/learning process. “” Akkoyunlu, 2002

“ lack of training, personal comfort levels, availability of equipment and time “” Martin, 2003

“ educators either teach themselves how to use technology or learn it from others “” Baert, 2012

The key is not to isolate technology from the pedagogical processes that it is intended to support

“ Technology integration is complex and is made up of processes of interconnected activities. “” Okojle et al, 2006

“ educational technology might include media, models, projected and non-projected visual, as well as audio, video and digital media. “” Lever-Duffy, McDonald and Mizell, 2005

“ teachers should connect instructional technology with the learning objectives, methods of instruction, learning style and pace of learning, assessment and evaluation strategies, including follow-up procedures. “” Okojle et al, 2006

“ [teachers] did not resist technology per se but agreed that they could not fully integrate it into their own practices because of the organisational, administrative, pedagogical, or personal constraints “” Leh, 2005

“ Infusing technology into a curriculum is less likely to make an impact on students’ learning if technology is not considered as a component of instruction. “” Okojle et al, 2006

“ The teacher should be able to assess the appropriateness of any technology used for teaching and learning in relation to specific instruction. “” Okojle et al, 2006

“ When you go to the hardware store to buy a drill, you don’t actually want a drill, you want a hole, they don’t sell holes at the hardware store, but they do sell drills, which are the technology used to make holes… “” Fletcher, 2006

“ …We must not lose sight that technology for the most part is a tool and it should be used in applications which address educational concerns. “” Fletcher, 2006

“ Technology in education is not a mere object to be introduced into teaching and learning activities at will without considering basic principles of learning and sound teaching methodology. “” Okojle, Ollnzock and Okejle-Boulder, 2006

What pedagogical principles guide the use of technology for teaching and learning within the curriculum?


we know how to teach people to film each other...

...but have we worked out how to teach them about what to film, what to look for, how to give feedback that helps them and the person/people they filmed to learn and develop?

In his work…

Bozkurt suggested that there were four fundamental dimensions of technological integration

Technical Knowledge

Technical Awareness of Knowledge Opportunities

Technical Awareness of Knowledge Opportunities Knowing the Limitations

Technical Awareness of Knowledge Opportunities Knowing the Pedagogy of Limitations Technology

Technical Knowledge

“ Teachers need to understand the technical details of the technology and know how to use it effectively. “” Bozkurt, 2011

“ In addition, teachers need to know how to solve lower level technical problems that can occur in relation to that technology. “” Bozkurt, 2011

“ A teacher also needs to have a basic understanding of the language and terms (even in a foreign language) used in the application. “” Bozkurt, 2011

Technical Awareness of Knowledge Opportunities

“ One of the basic reasons for using technology is to eliminate the hard-to-overcome procedures with the help of technological facilities. “” Bozkurt, 2011

In the past feedback was instantaneous. The teacher watched the performance and gave verbal or even written feedback

The only record of this was the student’s memory

Yet with apps like “Coaches Eye” or “Ubersense” this feedback is both instantaneous and ‘saveable’ so students can revisit it as many times as they want

Technical Awareness of Knowledge Knowing the Limitations

“ It is as important to be aware of the limitations of technology as is knowing the opportunities it presents “” Bozkurt, 2011

Using video analysis technology is limited by the number of computers or tablets you have. Any ratio less than one per student means that either someone is doing nothing or they are doing something else.

That is not to suggest that you shouldn’t use video analysis...

just that you do need to know how to compensate for these limitation

Technical Awareness of Knowledge Knowing the Pedagogy of Limitations Technology

“ This is necessary for the appropriate use of technology for particular student groups. “” Bozkurt, 2011

Like pedagogy itself it is not a ‘one size fits all’

“ For example, a teacher can assess his or her students’ performance using electronic portfolios “” Bozkurt, 2011

“ However, to achieve this, the teacher needs to know how to use the technology to support rather than replace the teaching. “” Bozkurt, 2011

“ In addition, the teacher should be able to determine which technology is appropriate to use by considering the level of the student group he or she is teaching “” Bozkurt, 2011

Technical Awareness of Knowledge Opportunities Knowing the Pedagogy of Limitations Technology

If we return to our hardware example...

Where we wanted a hole but had to buy a drill...

The teacher should find out what they want to achieve...

and then find the appropriate technology we put the pedagogy before the technology

Rather than buying a Birmingham Screwdriver

Rather than buying a Birmingham Screwdriver Industrial slang for a hammer. A multipurpose tool for fixing problems

Rather than buying a Birmingham Screwdriver “whack it with that Birmingham driver and see it it works”

Pedagogy Pedagogy of technology 1 3 Text 2 4 Technology “Material World”

“ [we need to consider that] at even broader societal levels, technological literacy has become a somewhat unquestioned component of long-term personal and professional success “” Cleary, Pierce,and Trauth, 2006

“ 2014, it is estimated that 90% of all people in the United States will be online with dramatically faster, high-speed networks “” Greenhow, Robelia, and Hughes, 2009

“ Ninety percent of school-age youth use the Internet, with adolescents ages 12 to 17 representing the largest and fastest-growing group of users “” Greenhow,et al, 2009

“ Recent national surveys (in the USA) report that the majority of teenagers go online daily or several times a day, mostly from home “” Greenhow,et al, 2009

However, let’s look at this from a different perspective

2014, it is estimated that 10% of all people in the United States will not be online

2014, it is estimated that 10% of all people in the United States will not be online If the USA has a population of 316 million that means that 31.6 Million are not online

Ten percent of school-age youth can’t use the Internet

A minority of teenagers rarely go online and never from home

The digital divide

“ We must look at the stark reality that there is a continuing achievement gap between the rich and the poor, and between whites and minority students, ... and it will only get bigger if we do not close the digital divide as well. “” Richard Riley

“ inequalities across schools can involve differences in physical access to ICTs, such as computers and the internet. “” Wood and Howley, 2012

“ ...and teachers simply having the confidence that activities designed around the World Wide Web would not be foiled by an unreliable internet connection. “” Wood and Howley, 2012

This is another debate but...

When considering ICT use in Physical education it is vital that we not only consider the dimensions of technological integration

Technical Awareness of Knowledge Opportunities Knowing the Pedagogy of Limitations Technology

i.e. we identify the hole here

and then use the correct tools

we also need to consider

we also need to consider How all children access this technology

thanks for listening

I can be found on twitter @DrAshCasey

I write a weekly blog at

I publish a weekly podcast at

Where I talk about physical education research

Image References Slide 1 - apple wireless keyboard and magic mouse by duckycards on iStock Slide 12 -[Portrait of Louis Armstrong, Carnegie Hall, New York, N.Y., ca. Apr. 1947] (LOC) on Flickr Slide 13 - Michael Jordan from Nike Slide 14 - zoom_Greenlight_MuhammadAli_1 Slide 15 - trumpet by rachelb56 on flickr Slide 16 - basketball by Curtis M. Kularski on flickr Slide 17 - boxing glove by kaybee07 on flickr Slide 18 - time by songallery on Flickr Slide 19 - iStockphoto editorial Slide 20 - iStockphoto Slide 59 - Happy Birthday by Maria Pavlova on iStockphoto.jpg Slide 60 - Flickr Slide 94 - old fashioned basketball court by ryanmcginnisphoto on flickr.jpg Slide 186 - Little boy & family with digital tablet from iStock

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