advertisement

determinants india

60 %
40 %
advertisement
Information about determinants india
Entertainment

Published on January 29, 2008

Author: Durante

Source: authorstream.com

advertisement

Religious and Cultural Determinants of Health Care: A Qualitative Study from India:  Religious and Cultural Determinants of Health Care: A Qualitative Study from India DR. VINOD SHAH Presented at Faith-Based Organizations as Pioneers and Partners in Health Systems Development, May 31, 2005, Omni Shoreham Hotel, Washington DC A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH …based on interviews with Hindu god-men, leaders & devotees. :  A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH …based on interviews with Hindu god-men, leaders & devotees. Slide3:  LORD RAM AND HANUMAN DEVOTEE SADHU JI AACHARYA LAL PRATAP MISHRA MEMBER OF SANATHAN DHARMA PANDIT HARISH KUMAR TRIVEDI RAM KRISHNA DEVOTEE Slide4:  PILGRIM SADHUS PILGRIM SADHU SANT RAM DAS SANTOSH HITAU SHRI MAHARAJ JI SHRI MOHAN LAL MISHRA Slide5:  SWAMI NANDACHARYA SWAMI NATWAR DAS A BLIND HINDU DEVOTEE A DEVOTEE OF VISHNU DEVOTEE OF BABA KIS A HINDU DEVOTEE Slide6:  JAGDISH KUMAR VAISH - STUDENT LAL SHRI MANGAL SWAMI PROFESSOR AJIT DALAL RAJU WOMEN PILGRIMS Slide7:  Factors that affected the health “caring” Culture. Role modeling of care-I:  Role modeling of care-I Did the religious leaders role model caring? VISITING THE SICK…:  VISITING THE SICK… I don’t go visiting and helping the sick because I’m not a doctor. I don’t have time to visit the sick. I help those who come to me and get them to the hospital. CONT.:  CONT. I sit on a seat that is fixed and it does not enable me to move about the whole day. I come here early morning and once I sit on my seat I don’t move. If someone who is sick and comes up to me…I may just help him I don’t have the time to visit the sick. Cont…:  Cont… If I am at prayer…I will not leave my prayer and go to help someone…I don’t think it is important. If I leave my god and my karma and help someone then my god will get angry…my karma will be lost… ROLE MODELLING OF CARE BY GODS AND GODDESS:  ROLE MODELLING OF CARE BY GODS AND GODDESS The Christian Gospel is full of Christ role modeling care and compassion Christians too are more interested in healing, caring and compassionate ministries The first hospital in India was mentioned during the time of Ashoka in the 2nd Century BC - there is no further mention of a hospital in India till the 15th Century after the advent of the Portuguese. Did God role model healing?:  Did God role model healing? There is no such example for god role modeling healing. Cont.:  Cont. SILENCE! Slide15:  THE ORTHODOX INDIAN CONTEXT Jainism discourages sharing your suffering with others. VISITING THE SICK is not done by the community and is confined to the family and extended family We never see Hindu or Buddhist or Jain Priests coming to pray for supporting the sick. It is not part of their job description. IMPORTANCE OF THE BODY Body- Soul dissociation-II:  IMPORTANCE OF THE BODY Body- Soul dissociation-II Developed societies To heal the body is also to minister to the soul and indeed to the whole person The body had intrinsic dignity however deformed or diseased. Even in death, the body needed to be respected The body was an integral part of “me”. Slide17:  One of the most difficult austerities a practitioner can attempt is to hold his arm upright in the air for twelve years. It is said that if successfully completed, the practice results in the attainment of supernatural powers Slide18:  The fingernails of this ascetic’s hand have curled around the palm during the four years he held it upright Slide19:  Offerings are made to a mediator who is buried up to the neck in sand. He suppresses the sensations of the flesh while attempting to free his mind through meditation. Slide20:  Lifting enormous rocks with the penis is one of the more unusual ways of desensitizing the sexual organ to overcome lust Slide21:  Perhaps the most well known austerity is lying on a bed of sharp nails to overcome the limitations of the physical body. Slide22:  Naga babas perform exercises with their penises, like lifting stones, stretching and rolling it around a stick to demonstrate that the nerves have been severed. Slide23:  Most yogis never cut their hair but grow it long and matted to discourage vanity. They wear little or no clothing, rubbing ash from the fires over their bodies Body Soul dissociation:  Body Soul dissociation The Indian systems have many “holistic” practices However none of them really address the hard core issues of the “body” like- Repair of structures/organs Understanding cellular processes Pathology of infections etc. Body (Dirty) and Soul (Good) were dissociated. SENSE OF COMMUNITY High and low trust societies-III:  SENSE OF COMMUNITY High and low trust societies-III IMPACT ON HEALTH/ ECONOMICS ACCORDING TO FRANCIS FUKUYOMA. Author of book on Trust THE ORTHODOX INDIAN CONTEXT:  THE ORTHODOX INDIAN CONTEXT SOLITARY WORSHIP LOW TRUST SOCIETIES LESS SPONTANEOUS SOCIALIBILITY LESS SOCIAL CAPITAL FAMILY BUSINESS ONLY LESS WEALTH CREATION JUDEO CHRISTIAN CONTEXT:  JUDEO CHRISTIAN CONTEXT COMMUNITY WORSHIP HIGH TRUST SOCIETIES MORE SPONTANEOUS SOCIALIBILITY MORE SOCIAL CAPITAL MULTINATIONAL CORPORATE BUSINESS MORE WEALTH CREATION Slide28:  Institutions that are required for health such as : Marketing of these herbs Standardization of dosages Ethical committees to set down codes of conduct Medical Training Centres Other disciplines which should cooperate and assist the physician. Farming of ayurvedic herbs All these require community cooperation. But sadly none of these happened in a regular sustainable fashion.   INDIVIDUAL WORSHIP:  INDIVIDUAL WORSHIP I sit here and worship my god alone…this is my temple. I perform all the rites of worship to gods like Ganga, etc…in the morning and evening. Cont.:  Cont. Ones karma is the only true form of worship. Following all rules and regulations is the best form of worship. Cont.:  Cont. Women’s disempowered status:  Women’s disempowered status IV Woman in Hinduism/Jainism:  Woman in Hinduism/Jainism Sentiment towards woman was low Later Vedic period – woman reduced to status of Sudra Women had no place in religious life-no reciting of slokas/ no salvation Degradation through temple prostitution/Tantric practices Slide34:  The eldest son of the family pays his last respects to his deceased father before completing the customary rituals and putting torch to the funeral pyre. Slide35:  Erotic sculptures abound & temple prostitution was one of the results Slide36:  TANTRA- Motionless sex and meditation at the same time. Sex sans lust Famous tantric:  Famous tantric Was a close confidante ofone of the PM in India Mr Chandraswamy Slide38:  A Memorial The women who committed Sati suicide were immortalized in India. Their praises were sung and temples were built for them. Offerings are made to many memorials even after several decades later. Slide39:  Memorials Erected for Women Who Committed Sati. These stones are called Maha-Sati stones and can be found in several parts of India Slide40:  Decorated Sati from a Hero-stone (Mahasati Stone) Slide41:  Bridal Makeup of a Woman Committing Suicide STATUS OF WOMEN:  STATUS OF WOMEN A woman’s religion is only to serve her husband. We Hindus believe this. We don’t believe we have any status without a husband. Family versus truth- V:  Family versus truth- V A father and a husband is like a God Family values & corruption:  Family values & corruption Scale of familism (World Values survey code book 1994 & World Bank statistics) Correlates well with the CPI.(Regression analysis) Tribalism- Africa and India Family values and corruption:  Family values and corruption Edward Banfield- “ Amoral familism”- The Moral Basis of a backward society Plato- “Children should be institutionalized” –Republic Chapter 5 Lawrence Harrison- Extended family –anti-development (Underdevelopment is a state of mind-page 7) Weber- Family Loyalty and market are antithetical -The religion of China- page 237. Corruption Perceptions Index 2004 :  Corruption Perceptions Index 2004 Corruption Perceptions Index 2004 This table was compiled at the University of Passau on behalf of Transparency International. For information on data and methodology, please consult the frequently asked questions and the framework document.:  Corruption Perceptions Index 2004 This table was compiled at the University of Passau on behalf of Transparency International. For information on data and methodology, please consult the frequently asked questions and the framework document. Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used***:  Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 1 Finland 9,7 9.5 - 9.8 9 2 New Zealand 9,6 9.4 - 9.6 9 3 Denmark 9,5 9.3 - 9.7 10 Iceland 9,5 9.4 - 9.7 8 5 Singapore 9,3 9.2 - 9.4 13 6 Sweden 9,2 9.1 - 9.3 11 7 Switzerland 9,1 8.9 - 9.2 10 8 Norway 8,9 8.6 - 9.1 9 9 Australia 8,8 8.4 - 9.1 15 10 Netherlands 8,7 8.5 - 8.9 10 11 United Kingdom 8,6 8.4 - 8.8 12 12 Canada 8,5 8.1 - 8.9 12 13 Austria 8,4 8.1 - 8.8 10 Luxembourg 8,4 8.0 - 8.9 7 15 Germany 8,2 8.0 - 8.5 11 16 Hong Kong 8,0 7.1 - 8.5 13 Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used***:  Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 17 Belgium 7,5 7.1 - 8.0 10 Ireland 7,5 7.2 - 7.9 10 USA 7,5 6.9 - 8.0 14 20 Chile 7,4 7.0 - 7.8 11 21 Barbados 7,3 6.6 - 7. 6 3 22 France 7,1 6.6 - 7.6 12 Spain 7,1 6.7 - 7.4 11 24 Japan 6,9 6.2 - 7.4 15 25 Malta 6,8 5.3 - 8.2 4 26 Israel 6,4 5.6 - 7.1 10 27 Portugal 6,3 5.8 - 6.8 9 28 Uruguay 6,2 5.9 - 6.7 6 29 Oman 6,1 5.1 - 6.8 5 United Arab Emirates 6,1 5.1 - 7.1 5 31 Botswana 6,0 5.3 - 6.8 7 Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used***:  Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 31 Estonia 6,0 5.6 - 6.7 12 Slovenia 6,0 5.6 - 6.6 12 34 Bahrain 5,8 5.5 - 6.2 5 35 Taiwan 5,6 5.2 - 6.1 15 36 Cyprus 5,4 5.0 - 5.8 4 37 Jordan 5,3 4.6 - 5.9 9 38 Qatar 5,2 4.6 - 5.6 4 39 Malaysia 5,0 4.5 - 5.6 15 Tunisia 5,0 4.5 - 5.6 7 41 Costa Rica 4,9 4.2 - 5.8 8 42 Hungary 4,8 4.6 - 5.0 12 Italy 4,8 4.4 - 5.1 10 44 Kuwait 4,6 3.8 - 5.3 5 Lithuania 4,6 4.0 - 5.4 9 South Africa 4,6 4.2 - 5.0 11 47 South Korea 4,5 4.0 - 4.9 14 48 Seychelles 4,4 3.7 - 5.0 3 49 Greece 4,3 4.0 - 4.8 9 Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used***:  Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 49 Suriname 4,3 2.1 - 5.8 3 51 Czech Republic 4,2 3.7 - 4.9 11 El Salvador 4,2 3.3 - 5.1 7 Trinidad and 4,2 3.6 - 5.2 6 Tobago 54 Bulgaria 4,1 3.7 - 4.6 10 Mauritius 4,1 3.2 - 4.8 5 Namibia 4,1 3.5 - 4.6 7 57 Latvia 4,0 3.8 - 4.3 8 Slovakia 4,0 3.6 - 4.5 11 59 Brazil 3,9 3.7 - 4.1 11 60 Belize 3,8 3.4 - 4.1 3 Colombia 3,8 3.4 - 4.1 10 62 Cuba 3,7 2.2 - 4.7 4 Panama 3,7 3.4 - 4.2 7 64 Ghana 3,6 3.1 - 4.1 7 Mexico 3,6 3.3 - 3.8 11 Thailand 3,6 3.3 - 3.9 14 Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used***:  Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 67 Croatia 3,5 3.3 - 3.8 9 Peru 3,5 3.3 - 3.7 8 Poland 3,5 3.1 - 3.9 13 Sri Lanka 3,5 3.1 - 3.9 8 71 China 3,4 3.0 - 3.8 16 Saudi Arabia 3,4 2.7 - 4.0 5 Syria 3,4 2.8 - 4.1 5 74 Belarus 3,3 1.9 - 4.8 5 Gabon 3,3 2.1 - 3.7 3 Jamaica 3,3 2.8 - 3.7 6 77 Benin 3,2 2.0 - 4.3 3 Egypt 3,2 2.7 - 3.8 8 Mali 3,2 2.2 - 4.2 5 Morocco 3,2 2.9 - 3.5 7 Turkey 3,2 2.8 - 3.7 13 82 Armenia 3,1 2.4 - 3.7 5 Bosnia and 3,1 2.7 - 3.5 7 Herzegovina Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used***:  Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 82 Madagascar 3,1 1.8 - 4.4 4 85 Mongolia 3,0 2.6 - 3.2 3 Senegal 3,0 2.5 - 3.5 6 87 Dominican 2,9 2.4 - 3.3 6 Republic Iran 2,9 2.2 - 3.4 5 Romania 2,9 2.5 - 3.4 12 90 Gambia 2,8 2.2 - 3.4 5 India 2,8 2.6 - 3.0 15 Malawi 2,8 2.2 - 3.7 5 Mozambique 2,8 2.4 - 3.1 7 Nepal 2,8 1.6 - 3.4 3 Russia 2,8 2.5 - 3.1 15 Tanzania 2,8 2.4 - 3.2 7 97 Algeria 2,7 2.3 - 3.0 6 Lebanon 2,7 2.1 - 3.2 5 Macedonia 2,7 2.3 - 3.2 7 Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used***:  Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 97 Nicaragua 2,7 2.5 - 3.0 7 Serbia and 2,7 2.3 - 3.0 7 Montenegro 102 Eritrea 2,6 1.6 - 3.4 3 Papua New 2,6 1.9 - 3.4 4 Guinea Philippines 2,6 2.4 - 2.9 14 Uganda 2,6 2.1 - 3.1 7 Vietnam 2,6 2.3 - 2.9 11 Zambia 2,6 2.3 - 2.9 6 108 Albania 2,5 2.0 - 3.0 4 Argentina 2,5 2.2 - 2.8 11 Libya 2,5 1.9 - 3.0 4 Palestinian 2,5 2.0 - 2.7 3 Authority 112 Ecuador 2,4 2.3 - 2.5 7 Yemen 2,4 1.9 - 2.9 5 Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used***:  Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 114 Congo, 2,3 2.0 - 2.7 4 Republic of Ethiopia 2,3 1.9 - 2.9 6 Honduras 2,3 2.0 - 2.6 7 Moldova 2,3 2.0 - 2.8 5 Sierra Leone 2,3 2.0 - 2.7 3 Uzbekistan 2,3 2.1 - 2.4 6 Venezuela 2,3 2.2 - 2.5 11 Zimbabwe 2,3 1.9 - 2.7 7 122 Bolivia 2,2 2.1 - 2.3 6 Guatemala 2,2 2.0 - 2.4 7 Kazakhstan 2,2 1.8 - 2.7 7 Kyrgyzstan 2,2 2.0 - 2.5 5 Niger 2,2 2.0 - 2.5 3 Sudan 2,2 2.0 - 2.3 5 Ukraine 2,2 2.0 - 2.4 10 Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used***:  Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 129 Cameroon 2,1 1.9 - 2.3 5 Iraq 2,1 1.3 - 2.8 4 Kenya 2,1 1.9 - 2.4 7 Pakistan 2,1 1.6 - 2.6 7 133 Angola 2,0 1.7 - 2.1 5 Congo, 2,0 1.5 - 2.2 3 Democratic Republic Cote d´Ivoire 2,0 1.7 - 2.2 5 Georgia 2,0 1.6 - 2.3 7 Indonesia 2,0 1.7 - 2.2 14 Tajikistan 2,0 1.7 - 2.4 4 Turkmenistan 2,0 1.6 - 2.3 3 140 Azerbaijan 1,9 1.8 - 2.0 7 Paraguay 1,9 1.7 - 2.2 7 142 Chad 1,7 1.1 - 2.3 4 Myanmar 1,7 1.5 - 2.0 4 144 Nigeria 1,6 1.4 - 1.8 9 145 Bangladesh 1,5 1.1 - 1.9 8 Haiti 1,5 1.2 - 1.9 5 Time orientation-VI:  Time orientation-VI Clocks/Watches & Clock makers Protestants vs Catholic areas (Culture makes almost all the difference-David Landes) Time orientation among the rural/urban No watches among the sadhus TIME ORIENTATION Circular vs the Climactic :  TIME ORIENTATION Circular vs the Climactic Slide59:  6:30 P.M. 11.13 AM Subjective cultures versus Objective cultures- Factor VII:  Subjective cultures versus Objective cultures- Factor VII Subjective cultures versus Objective cultures:  Subjective cultures versus Objective cultures Subjective cultures do not support scientific development because:  Subjective cultures do not support scientific development because Interpret reality subjectively Access knowledge subjectively Subjective attitudes in justice and gender WHY DO WE FALL SICK?:  WHY DO WE FALL SICK? Earlier our religion was pure so we did not fall sick… People are bodily sick now because they get up to bed tea which is slow poison. We must get up instead to one jug of ‘Ganga water.’ Water cleanses the body Slide64:  We fall sick due to the influence of the planets. The position of the planets have either negative or a positive influence on people…often sickness is caused due to negative planetary positions. Negative planetary positions can be avoided by performing certain rites and rituals. PLANETARY INFLUENCES… Cont.:  Cont. We believe that each organ of the body is influenced by some deity. When we deviate from the path of religion …the gods leave our side. This is why we fall sick. Mantra that can shatter the moon:  Mantra that can shatter the moon There are a few mantras that are more powerful than any medicine Among all others…the ‘maha mithunjay’ mantra is very important. This mantra saved the moon from breaking into pieces Indian religions…:  Indian religions… In their fundamentals were subjective till Global influences reached them. WASAV (Widely Accepted Shared Absolute Values) characterize an objective culture and needed for development. Polytheistic idolatry does not produce a WASAV culture. AYURVEDA:  AYURVEDA Revealed science- The first person of Trinity-Brahma Had more magic than logic till the Buddhist period 2 of the 4 books of vedas have Ayurveda-RIG & Atharvaveda Claim: Practiced for 4000 years Origin of Ayurveda is attributed to Brahma:  Origin of Ayurveda is attributed to Brahma 4 headed Brahma (first person of the Trinity ) who created the universe revealed Ayurveda. Since it was revealed research was not thought of as necessary. Dakhsprajapati Sons of the Sun Ashwini Kumars Slide70:  7 causes of diseases- Variations in climate Derangement of Humors in the body Super human agencies Pregnant women Eating Forbidden food Accidents Mother nature Corrupt Semen Slide71:  Prying into other People’s secrets Causes blindness Sleeping with your master’s wife causes sexual diseases Back biters get Breathing difficulty Drunkards get skin diseases Killing a Brahmin causes anemia “Karmic” causes of diseases Slide72:  Governs mental functions Governs digestion Governs form & substance 3 humoral categories of Ayurveda Buddhist influence & Ayurveda:  Buddhist influence & Ayurveda Susruta 7 th century BC Charaka EIGHT PARTS OF AYURVEDA:  EIGHT PARTS OF AYURVEDA Shalya – surgery Shlakya – treatment of diseases of parts situated above the clavicles, such as disease of the eyes, nose, etc Kaya-chikitsa – general diseases affecting the whole body Bhoot-vidya – demonical diseases       Eight parts of Ayurveda:  Eight parts of Ayurveda Kumara-bhritya – management of children Agada – antibodies for poisons Rasayana – treats of medicines preserving vigor, restoring youth, etc. Vajikarana – describes the means of increasing the virile power by giving tone to the weakened organs of generation. Waning of Buddhist influence:  Waning of Buddhist influence Ayurveda declined..became subjective Surgery was banned Arabic influence-7th AD to 13AD:  Arabic influence-7th AD to 13AD Arabic scholars from the east helped document the remedies (Tuhafatul-masiha) Bimaristans were established. Colonial rule..:  Colonial rule.. Ayurveda developed Colleges were established Herbs were grown Slide79:  EV 300BC – 200AD LV 700 AD – 1100 AD “Influence on Ayurveda” as an objectivity indicator Rise in objectivity Rise in objectivity Colonial Arabic Buddhist Ideas:  Ideas Can we create an instrument to measure subjectivity levels in a culture? Will subjective cultures be more resistant to development than objective ones? Will Polytheistic Idolatrous cultures be more subjective than monotheistic ones?

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

How are social determinants of health addressed in India?

How are social determinants of health addressed in India? Interview with Commissioner Mirai Chatterjee . Dr Mirai Chatterjee is the Coordinator of Social ...
Read more

Social determinants of health in India: progress and ...

Despite the recognized importance of social determinants of health (SDH) in India, no compilation of the status of and inequities in SDH across India has ...
Read more

Effective social determinants of health aEffective social ...

- Draft Background Paper 9 - Effective social determinants of health aEffective social determinants of health approach pproach pproach in India through ...
Read more

China, India, and the Socioeconomic Determinants of Their ...

Abstract. We analyze and compare the social, cultural and historical determinants that influence the international competitiveness of China and India.
Read more

Social determinants of health in India: progress and ...

1. Int J Equity Health. 2014 Oct 8;13:88. doi: 10.1186/s12939-014-0088-0. Social determinants of health in India: progress and inequities across states.
Read more

Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in India

Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in India 679 Advances in Economics and Business Management (AEBM) Print ISSN: 2394-1545; Online ISSN: 2394-1553 ...
Read more

Determinants of inflation in India - ScienceDirect.com

Highlights • Paper identifies the major determinants of inflation in India using a time varying SVAR model for the period 1996–2014. • Influence of ...
Read more

Determinants of Foreign Institutional Investment in India ...

The purpose of the study is to explore the determinants of foreign institutional investments in India through the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL ...
Read more

Determinants of female entrepreneurship in India - OECD.org

ECO/WKP(2015)9 3 ABSTRACT/RÉSUMÉ Determinants of Female Entrepreneurship in India This paper examines the nature and determinants of female ...
Read more

uhc-india.org

uhc-india.org
Read more