Published on February 20, 2014
Designing a New Train Ian Walmsley Engineering Development Manager Porterbrook 1
ROSCO - Our business Simple business model Long term assets Short term customers Straight Line depreciation Gosplan economics Market should be predictable Policy isn’t Pre-emptive work = high risk 2
What’s good for us? Stock stays on lease for 35 years Minimum changes to achieve this Rolling stock should be: • Reliable • Comfortable • Energy efficient • Low maintenance • Coupling compatible • Suitable for the service • Adaptable for other services 3
An example High reliability (90,000 mpc) Regenerative Braking (15% less energy) AC traction, low maintenance Compliant to modern safety standards Compliant to disability regulations Air conditioned, good ride, modern interior Perfectly designed for the service it operates Risk of displacement? 4
Lesson learned The best train doesn’t always win Economy beats quality The Department is particularly interested to see rolling stock used on airport services that is better suited to the needs of airport passengers; Page 81 TSGN ITT Sept 2013 10
The UK rolling stock market is neither free nor controlled 11
Market and cost 12 Rail 2% of market Modal transfer CO2 Reduction Capacity of system
Market and cost Train is 15% of industry cost : 12% capital + 3% Maintenance 13
New train specification – Non-compliances GSM link to PIS Coupling with doors open GOP panel full function Current standards Ride better than 450 Inter-Vehicle damping Noise – new standard Reliability 340,000 MTIN Water tank gauge Insulation infra-red scan Dead haulage in service to 90 mph Light flash guard position 1450mm wide doors Standbacks at doors Footsteps cannot obstruct doors Emergency brake in Neutral No hill start button Sanding – dedicated power supply Low sand indicator Sandbox trace heating WSP failure alarm P12 Profile wheels 14 Wheelset coating to minimise UAT Option for flange lubrication GSMR radio fitted Maintenance free batteries PIS letter descenders uncompressed Coach letter display in train Side of train PIS displays Wi-Fi remote upload PIS OTMR – GSMR Interface OTMR 7-day recording OTMR flash card download Train Manager’s office 275 seats (270) Emergency light power supplies No bonded glass Ergonomic layout for vehicle on it’s side Seat re-arrange with same body panels Toilet flush with lid up CCTV viewing screen Power close cab door ERTMS space provision and supply
New train requirement Use existing design? • • • • • Produce new design? • • • • • Capacity Acceleration 24 tph New technology Competition 15 Higher risk Design costs Safety Case Potential market Maintenance cost
Safety is a “given” Rail Group Standards Codes of practice European standards Disabled legislation Fire regulations Accident reports Design review Acceptance bodies 16 Crashworthiness Materials used Control logic Redundancy Human Factors Stepping distances Electrical Interference Kinematic Envelope
Market divisions High Speed Lines Inter-City Outer Suburban Commuter Inner Suburban Metro 17
What do you want? – Passenger focus 18
What do you want? (Leeds area figures) 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Spring Autumn Spring Autumn Spring Autumn Spring Autumn Spring Autumn Satisfied n/a 86% 84% 78% 83% 87% 87% 78% 75% 78% Neutral n/a 10% 10% 11% 12% 8% 9% 14% 16% 11% Dissatisfi ed n/a 5% 6% 11% 6% 6% 5% 8% 9% 11% 19
What do you want? 20
New train decisions - speed Maximum Speed • • • • • • 140 mph 125 mph 118 mph 100 mph 90 mph 75 mph 21 Track costs Train weight limits Installed power Braking ability Acceleration No. Powered axles Cost
New train decisions - length 3, 4 or 5 car 20m long 23m long 26m long 16.6m long 22 Platform Lengths Selective Door Opening Station dwell times No. of bogies Weight (Energy, track) Axle load (speed) Expected capacity need
New train decisions - doors End or 1/3 – 2/3? How many? How wide? Standbacks? Swing/Slide Control 23 Doorway = 8 seats Standbacks = 8 seats Weight (Pass/m2) Speed of operation Reliability FASDO
New train decisions - Seats How many? Legroom Rake angle Armrests Tables 24 Less seats, More people Crashworthiness Weight Cost Resistance to damage
Limiting case design 26
Limiting case design Centre section peak operation sets design Bedford – Brighton 2 hrs 15 min Thameslink & Crossrail – same problem Not ideal for off-peak journeys Is there a choice? 27
The “Platform” Need to spread design cost Make design flexible around a fixed “platform” New trains around country will be similar Platform designs usually last about 10 years 1970s 1960s 1990s 1980s 28 2000s
Maintenance Options - 1 All inclusive deal with manufacturer • • • • • Capital Depots Materials Depot maintenance Major overhaul Only specify number of diagrams to be covered Best incentive to minimise maintenance cost Usually most expensive deal – risk brings reward “Wet” lease with ROSCO “Power by the hour” 29
Maintenance Options - 2 “Soggy” lease with ROSCO • • • • • Capital rental Non-cap for overhaul Operator maintains Network Rail facilities Contract sets responsibility Operator controls daily availability “Lumpy” overhaul and repair costs smoothed out Terms to fit franchises System used when privatised in 1994 30
Maintenance Options - 3 “Dry” lease with ROSCO • • • • • Capital rental only No “maintenance reserve” Operator maintains ROSCO audits asset Redelivery inspections Operator controls all aspects Lower initial cost Higher risk to operator – design and endemic faults Operators often expect support not paid for 31
Residual Value Franchise operators come and go ROSCO carries residual value Example:- • • • • 200 vehicles at £1.7m each = £340M investment. Assumed a 35 year life After 7 year franchise residual value is 28/35 of £340M £272M Risk may be backed off to Government No more diesels 32
Conclusions Designing a train is a series of compromises Designs will primarily aim at one of 4 markets • • • • High Speed Inter City Suburban Metro Adaptable for different routes – the “Platform” Residual Value (i.e. life) very important 33
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BVQYldQpeKY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZqsdOEdUuA 34
Thank you 35
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