Published on February 21, 2014
(and use) Design of learning experiences for science teaching & faculty development: What theories of learning apply? Liz Dorland Dec. 2013 for the Education Research Group (ERG) Washington University in St. Louis email@example.com (with live links to research, information & resources)
What should we teach? How should we teach it? How do we decide? • • • • • • Theories of Learning Mapping the Theory Landscape How many are there? Which is true? Disciplines, Theorists, Theories Applications in science and chemistry Do the same theories apply to students & faculty?
What Theories Underlie the Practice of Faculty Development? tinyurl.com/mckeachie
AISHE: Emerging issues in the practice of University Learning and Teaching AISHE: Emerging issues in the practice of University Learning and Teaching http://www.aishe.org/readings/2005-1/toc.html www.aishe.org/readings/2005-1/toc.html
Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching, and Technology Overview of Learning Theories and Strategies From an AECT online textbook: Department of Educational Psychology and Instructional Technology, University of Georgia
Learning Paradigms – Oversimplified - Behaviorist vs Cognitivist vs Constructivist
“Learning Theory” Googled
50+ Theories of Learning www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ACT (Anderson) Adult Learning Theory (Cross) Algo-Heuristic Theory (Landa) Andragogy (Knowles) Anchored Instruction (Bransford-CTGV) Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (Cronbach & Snow) Attribution Theory (Weiner) Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger) Cognitive Flexibility (Spiro) Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller) Component Display (Merrill) Conditions of Learning (Gagne) Connectionism (Thorndike) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Constructivist Theory (Bruner) Contiguity Theory (Guthrie) Conversation Theory (Pask) Criterion Referenced Instruction (Mager) Double Loop Learning (Argyris) Drive Reduction Theory (Hull) Dual Coding Theory (Paivio) Elaboration Theory (Reigeluth) Experiential Learning (Rogers) Functional Context (Sticht) Genetic Epistemology (Piaget) Gestalt Theory (Wertheimer) GOMS (Card, Moran & Newell) GPS (Newell & Simon)
50+ Theories of Learning (2) www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/ • • • • • • • • • • • • Information Pickup (Gibson) Information Processing (Miller) Lateral Thinking (DeBono) Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart) Mathematical Learning Theory (Atkinson) Mathematical Problem Solving (Schoenfeld) Minimalism (Carroll) Model Centered Instruction & Design Layering (Gibbons) Modes of Learning (Rumelhart & Norman) Multiple Intelligences (Gardner) Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Originality Theory (Maltzman) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Phenomenonography (Marton & Entwistle) Repair Theory (VanLehn) Script Theory (Schank) Sign Theory (Tolman) Situated Learning (Lave) Soar (Newell et al.) Social Development (Vygotsky) Social Learning (Bandura) Stimulus Sampling (Estes) Structural Learning (Scandura) Structure of Intellect (Guilford) Subsumption Theory (Ausubel) Symbol Systems (Salomon) Triarchic Theory (Sternberg) Transformational Theory (Mezirow)
Map of Learning Theories www.greatmathsteachingideas.com/2013/05/09/infographic-of-learning-theories/
Color code zoom: Theorists, Disciplines,Theories, Applications: infographic-of-learning-theories
5 main theories of learning: summary of Carleton Reeve’s mapping of theories:www.bioteams.com/2012/11 /05/the_five_major.html Summary of Carleton Reeve’s mapping: www.bioteams.com/2012/11/05/the_five_major.html
Who is this man? “... People with great passions, people who “... People with great passions, people who accomplish great deeds, people who possess strong feelings, even people with great minds and a strong personality, rarely come out of good little boys and girls.” accomplish great deeds, people who possess from Educational Psychology strong feelings, even people (a practical manual for teachers) - Lev Vygotsky (1926) with great minds and a strong personality, rarely marxists.anu.edu.au/archive/vygotsky come out of good little boys and girls.” / from Educational Psychology (a practical manual for teachers) Lev Vygotsky (1926) (first English translation – 1972) marxists.anu.edu.au/archive/vygotsky/
Two-Store or Dual Memory Model Cognitivist Theory - e.g. Baddeley (1970s) Control or executive processes regulate the flow of information throughout the information processing system… Control or Executive Processes Input Sensory Register Working Memory Long-term Memory
Alex Johnstone: JCE 1983 How many chunks? • • • • • Miller number 7 Working memory Chunking Perception filter Information Processing Model Organic Chem Topics After repeated attempts
Alex Johnstone: Journal of Chemical Education (1997) Information Processing Model
Kolb’s Experiential Learning - Based on Dewey & Lewin
Illeris: A Unified Concept for Theories of Learning?
DNA Images: What do students see?
Google Images: “NaCl dissolving”
Representational Competence & Multiple Representations are these the Same or Different? Tom Greenbowe Roy Tasker
Levels of Representation Macroscopic (water) – Symbolic (formula) – Sub-microscopic (molecule) Symbolic H2O Macroscopic Sub-Microscopic
“Dissolving NaCl” - add salt to water Run web animation: NCSSM Chapter5-Animations/Dissolving_NaCl-Electrolyte Screenshots from NCSSM C.O.R.E. - Chemistry Online Resource Essentials North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics
“Dissolving NaCl” - salt dissolves Animation from NCSSM (2007) Screenshots from NCSSM Animation (2007)
“Dissolving NaCl” H2O solvates Na+ & Cl- ions Screenshots from NCSSM Animation (2007)
“Dissolving NaCl”- ions hydrated Animation from NCSSM (2007) Screenshots from NCSSM Animation (2007)
“Dissolving NaCl” – Solution Animation from NCSSM (2007) Screenshots from NCSSM Animation (2007)
“Dissolving NaCl” - Water or Salt Water? Animation from NCSSM (2007) Screenshots from NCSSM Animation (2007)
What do students see? Mixing Polar and Non-Polar Liquids Animation Run NCSS Web-based Animation: Polar vs Non-Polar
What do students see? Do hexane and water mix (dissolve)? Animation Screenshots from NCSSM Animation (2007)
What do students see? See the layers? Which is more dense? Play Animation of Polar and Non-Polar in Solution
Student Drawings (Chiu & Linn – JSE&T) Increased connections among symbolic and molecular representations, limiting reactants, and conservation of mass If only the molecules shown in the closed container KR below react according to the equation, draw the expected products in the box to the right: RB 2S + 3O2 -> 2SO3 BW Pretest Post test (1) (1) (2) Draw the container after the reaction.
Ionization Energies & The Periodic Table Ionization Energies Movie: www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/anim/ioniz.mov Element Movies (from H): www.periodicvideos.com/videos/001.htm Periodic Table Trends: www.rsc.org/periodic-table/trends/ Are Videos Effective?
“She Calls It ‘Phenomena’ Everyone Else Calls It Art” Felice Frankel, NYT June 2007 2001 speaker: Visualization in Sci & Edu GRC
MIT-NSF: “Picturing to Learn” web.mit.edu/i-m/picturing/pict_students.html “We compared scores on the final exams 2004 vs 2005 and saw evidence in support of deeper understanding of concepts addressed in the picturing homework assignments.”
Donald Sadoway, MIT (with Felice Frankel) Department of Materials Science and Engineering web.mit.edu/i-m/picturing/pict_stu04.html web.mit.edu/i-m/assets/picturing/mari.mov (QT) Student Animations of their Understanding of Polymerization
2003 & 2009 GRC Speaker Barbara Tversky, Psychology Stanford & Columbia University “Animation, Does it Facilitate Learning?” www-psych.stanford.edu/~bt/ Diagrams: www-psych.stanford.edu/~bt/diagrams/papers/ Space: www-psych.stanford.edu/~bt/space/papers/ Events: www-psych.stanford.edu/~bt/events/papers/ • Animations have not been proven more effective than equivalent static graphics. • Animations that are invented and used in exploring phenomena and data, often by experts in pursuit of understanding, may be effective. • Creating animations may confer benefits to the creators. • Expertise in the specific content and animation may make some animations effective.
What should we teach? How should we teach it? How do we decide? What’s your theory?? • • • • • • Theories of Learning Mapping the Theory Landscape How many are there? Which is true? Disciplines, Theorists, Theories Applications in science and chemistry Do the same theories apply to students & faculty?
Learning & Instruction Cognition & Instruction Journal of Research in Science Teaching International Journal of Science Education Applied Cognitive Psychology Journal of the Learning Sciences Cognitive Science Learning Theory in Research Journals Ed. Technology Research & Development Journal of Science, Ed & Technology British Journal of Educational Technology Technology, Pedagogy and Education Canadian J of Learning Technology Computers & Human Behavior Learning, Media & Technology Liz Dorland Washington University in St. Louis firstname.lastname@example.org
50+ Theories of Learning (linked) www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/ ACT-R (John Anderson) Adult Learning Theory (P. Cross) Algo-Heuristic Theory (L. Landa) Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles) Anchored Instruction (John Bransford) Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (L. Cronbach & R. Snow) Attribution Theory (B. Weiner) Cognitive Dissonance Theory (L. Festinger) Cognitive Flexibility Theory (R. Spiro) Cognitive Load Theory (J. Sweller) Component Display Theory (M. David Merrill) Conditions of Learning (Robert Gagne) Connectionism (Edward Thorndike) Constructivist Theory (Jerome Bruner) Contiguity Theory (Edwin Guthrie) Conversation Theory (Gordon Pask) Criterion Referenced Instruction (Robert Mager) Double Loop Learning (C. Argyris) Drive Reduction Theory (C. Hull) Dual Coding Theory (A. Paivio) Elaboration Theory (C. Reigeluth) Experiential Learning (C. Rogers) Functional Context Theory (Tom Sticht) Genetic Epistemology (J. Piaget) Gestalt Theory (M. Wertheimer) GOMS (Card, Moran & Newell) General Problem Solver (A. Newell & H. Simon) Information Pickup Theory (J.J. Gibson)
50+ Theories of Learning (2) www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/ Information Processing Theory (G.A. Miller) Lateral Thinking (E. DeBono) Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart) Mathematical Learning Theory (R.C. Atkinson) Mathematical Problem Solving (A. Schoenfeld) Minimalism (J. M. Carroll) Model Centered Instruction and Design Layering (Andrew Gibbons) Modes of Learning (D. Rumelhart & D. Norman) Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardner) Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner) Originality (I. Maltzman) Phenomenonography (F. Marton & N. Entwistle) Repair Theory (K. VanLehn) Script Theory (Roger Schank) Sign Theory (E. Tolman) Situated Learning (J. Lave) Soar (A. Newell et al.) Social Development (L. Vygotsky) Social Learning Theory (A. Bandura) Stimulus Sampling Theory (W. Estes) Structural Learning Theory (J. Scandura) Structure of Intellect (J. Guilford) Subsumption Theory (D. Ausubel) Symbol Systems (G. Salomon) Triarchic Theory (R. Sternberg) Transformational Theory (J. Mezirow)
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