Published on April 3, 2014
DESIGN FIXATION Discussant: Jingning Zhang
PROCEDURES Design Problem Flawed Example Generate Designs Control Fixation
“explicitly instructed that no straws …” Control Fixation Designs with straws 1% 17% RESULTS
Why the designers disobey the instructions? Control Fixation Designs with straws 1% 17%
Why the ﬁxation group contains obvious ﬂaws? Misunderstanding on instructions Grading policy
What if they are told about the ﬂaws in examples?
SIMILARITY METRICS Flawed Features Flexibility Originality Number of designs
Only use 3 features? No positive features? Originality & ﬂexibility only for Experiment 4? So what do you think is the right metrics for similarity? SIMILARITY METRICS Flawed Features Flexibility OriginalityNumber of designs
Leverage Design Fixation in Crowd-sourcing
Under what task conditions is it approbate to supply examples? Domain Familiarity Response Diversity
What is the right time to present examples? Beginning? Halfway through?
What examples should we presents? Amount? Positive or negative or both?
Design Fixation in Other Fields
What evidence can be provided for design ﬁxation in other design ﬁelds? Web Design UI Design Architecture Design
What method can be taken to overcome design ﬁxation? Talk to other people Refer to other designs Your own tricks?
How Examples may (and may not) constrain creativity Discussant : Baskar Rethina-saba-pathi
Benzene Ring Hypothesis - Kekulé predicted the cyclic model 65 years before actual confirmation
Benzene Ring Hypothesis - Inspiration from a dream of a snake biting its own tail
First commercial Television – Raster Scan - Farnsworth worked out the principle of the image dissector when he was 15
First commercial Television – Raster Scan - Inspired from the back-and-forth motion used to plow a field
Farming Electronics Mythology Chemistry
Farming Electronics Mythology Chemistry Software Flagship Product
Farming Electronics Mythology Chemistry Software Software Flagship Product Most criticized
Would reading of prior work be considered looking at examples? Would this suggest conformity? Example: Reading technical papers, old versions of code
Why fresh works are perceived to be more creative than improvisations? Marsh’s assessment - we fixate on some aspects while still innovating in other areas
http://youtu.be/zd-dqUuvLk4?t=7m18s What do you need to think outside the box? Step 0: Borrow a box ?
Plagiarism impacts designs. But the paper does not say when are they good to adopt Can we say, there exists nothing called “Absolutely Novel”? Is everything example driven?
Conformity or a Product of Sampling Probability? ... design fixation, ... how and why examples affect performance in design idea generation.
A Step Beyond to Overcome Design Fixation: A ... or field of knowledge. Examples include memory fixation, ... or conformity due to proficiency in the ...
Using Evolved Analogies to Overcome Creative Design Fixation Steven M. Smith, ... fixation can be triggered by accidentally encountered cues,
... who go on to state that “Examples can cause conformity, ... 2013): Overcoming design fixation through ... they are examples of fixation, ...
Publication » Exposure Effects in Design Idea Generation: Unconscious Conformity or a ... as design fixation, ... various examples to induce fixation.
Constraining effects of examples in a creative generation ... the examples did not decrease conformity to the examples, ... Design fixation ...
... different from the examples did not decrease conformity to the examples, ... role in the extent of design fixation. Across the examples, ...
Using Evolved Analogies to Overcome Creative Design Fixation. ... examples in a design ... Conformity to experimenterprovided examples: ...
Define conformity: behavior that is the same as the behavior of most other people in a society, ... Examples: conformity in a sentence. Merriam Webster.