Design and Analysis of Composite Propeller Blade for Aircraft

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Information about Design and Analysis of Composite Propeller Blade for Aircraft
Engineering

Published on October 21, 2014

Author: ijeraeditor

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Fiber reinforced composites is used for twin blade propeller because of its high strength, low temperature applications. Fiber has to be oriented in the loading direction while designing the composite propeller blade. The blade geometry and design are more complex involving many controlling parameters. In the present work a methodology to design a composite propeller to analyze its strength and deformation using ANSYS software. The weight of the composite blade is reduced compared to wooden blade by adopting the shell model. The present work is to carryout the static analysis of composite propeller which is a combination CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) and epoxy resin materials. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the composite blade over wooden stress analysis is performed on both the blades. To define the orientation and number of layers in the composite blade ANSYS classic software is used. From the results, the stresses of composite propeller obtained in static analysis are within the allowable stress limit. The deflection of the composite blade is less compared to the wooden blade.

1. Madhusudhan BM Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 9( Version 4), September 2014, pp.79-82 www.ijera.com 79 | P a g e Design and Analysis of Composite Propeller Blade for Aircraft Madhusudhan BM *, Dr P.V Srihari ** *( MTech (Product Design and Manufacturing), R.V.C.E, Bangalore.) ** (Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, R.V.C.E, Bangalore.) ABSTRACT Fiber reinforced composites is used for twin blade propeller because of its high strength, low temperature applications. Fiber has to be oriented in the loading direction while designing the composite propeller blade. The blade geometry and design are more complex involving many controlling parameters. In the present work a methodology to design a composite propeller to analyze its strength and deformation using ANSYS software. The weight of the composite blade is reduced compared to wooden blade by adopting the shell model. The present work is to carryout the static analysis of composite propeller which is a combination CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) and epoxy resin materials. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the composite blade over wooden stress analysis is performed on both the blades. To define the orientation and number of layers in the composite blade ANSYS classic software is used. From the results, the stresses of composite propeller obtained in static analysis are within the allowable stress limit. The deflection of the composite blade is less compared to the wooden blade. Keywords - Analysis, Fiber composite, Propeller blade I. INTRODUCTION A propeller blade which helps to transmit power by converting rotational motion into thrust. The different materials used for propeller blade are wood, aluminium and composite material. The blades are attached to the hub [5] [6]. A composite is a combination of two materials in which one of the materials, called the reinforcing phase, is in the form of fibers, sheets, or particles, and is embedded in the other materials called the matrix phase. A composite material is a heterogeneous combination of two or more materials differing in form or composition on a macro scale. The reinforcing material and the matrix material can be metal, ceramic or polymer. The composite propeller blades perform better than the wooden propeller blade [9]. To avoid the deflection of the blade poly materials are used inside the composite propeller blade [8]. One of most commonly adopted manufacturing of composite propeller is hand layup. The finite element method is so popular and has been used many researchers [1]. The back drop to this advancement is the fact that composites can provide a wide variety of special characteristics that metals cannot [7]. The usage of composite is rapidly increasing in industries due to its properties and cost effectiveness. As the technology advances the usage of composites is increasing and cost is becoming less [4]. J.E.Conolly [2] considered a propeller blade as a cantilever rigid at the boss. The stress analysis of the composite propeller blade is carried out in ANSYS 14.5. The present work is mainly focused on converting the wooden blade into a composite propeller in terms of weight reduction, improve in performance of blade and reduce deflection. II. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF PROPELLER BLADE 2.1 MODELING Modelling of the propeller is done using CATIA V5 R17. Two propeller models are developed i.e., solid wooden blade and composite blade. The propeller blades are developed at the length of 1100mm and at the width of 120mm. The diameter of the hub is 25mm. The outer profile of the solid wooden propeller blade is developed with the help of CMM. The developed model is further modified to get the exact aerofoil of the blade as shown in figure 2.1. The solid model is transferred to the composite module in CATIA software. The total weight of the wooden blade is 2.071Kg. To design a composite propeller blade the blade is divided into ten sections along the span length of the blade at each section the outer profile of the blade is developed as shown in figure 2.2. At the root of the blade the profile is almost in circular shape. In the middle of the blade it has exact aerofoil design and at the tip of the blade the profile same as the middle of the blade but in small size. One more profile is developed at each section which is the replica of the developed outer profile of the blade figure 2.3. The newly developed profile is developed in the reduced small figure 2.4. In the reduced profile twenty numbers of points are created at equal distance figure 2.5. Each profile is connected through spline option with the help of created points in each profile figure 2.6. The created RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS

2. Madhusudhan BM Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 9( Version 4), September 2014, pp.79-82 www.ijera.com 80 | P a g e surface is the scaled model of the actual blade. Similarly different sizes of the profiles are developed in the reduced area of the blade. The reduced surface model is removed in the solid model figure 2.7. Similar procedure is adopted to develop the different reduced area blades. The weight of the composite propeller is less than 90% of the solid wooden blade. Beech wood is the material used for solid propeller. The carbon fiber with epoxy resin material is selected to develop the composite propeller blade. The carbon fiber material is selected because of its mechanical properties which are having more strength compared to other composite materials. Figure 2.1 Solid wooden blade Figure 2.2 Profile at each section Figure 2.3 Outer profile of the blade Figure 2.4 One more developed profile Figure 2.5 Points created in each profile Figure 2.6 Spline connecting the profile Figure 2.7 Hollow composite blade 2.2 Analysis Steady static analysis has been carried out on both wooden and composite blades using FEA software ANSYS 14.5. The solid propeller blade analysis is carried out in ANSYS workbench 14.5. The blades are imported to the ANSYS software in igs format. SHELL 188 elements are used for the analysis of the solid propeller blade. Fine coarse mesh is done for the blade as shown in figure 2.9. The composite propeller blade model is imported to the ANSYS classic 14.5 in igs format. For the various fiber orientations 00, ±300, ±450, ±600, ±900 analysis is carried out. From the analysis 00, ±45 0 . orientation is best suited for the present application. At the root of the blade the thickness is more compared to the tip of the blade. The fibers are oriented to the blade model as required. Then the analysis is carried out for the composite propeller blade. SHELL188 element is considered for the composite propeller. Fine coarse mesh is considered for the composite blade as shown in figure 2.7. Composite propeller blade is considered as a cantilever beam. The blade is fixed in all degrees of freedom at the root of the blade as shown in figure 2.8. The centrifugal force on the propeller blade is assumed to act through the centroid of the blade. For

3. Madhusudhan BM Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 9( Version 4), September 2014, pp.79-82 www.ijera.com 81 | P a g e stiffness of the blade roha cell is used inside the hollow portion of the composite propeller blade. The parameters considered for the analysis of the blades are the blade is fixed in all degrees of freedom at the root of the blade at 1000N thrust. Figure 2.7 Meshed blade Figure2.8 Blade fixed all DOF Figure2.9 Solid wooden meshed blade III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION From the analysis of the blade stresses and deflection are carried out. Von misses stress and deflection in all direction. In case of solid wooden blade the maximum stresses is exerted at the hub. The minimum is exerted at the tip of the blade. The stresses are distributed along the length of the span. In case of composite propeller the maximum deflection is at the root where the hub is attached. The deflection of the composite propeller is different in X, Y and Z direction. The deflection at the tip of the composite propeller blade is more where the thickness is less compared to the root of the blade but the thrust experienced is same at the root also. The stresses experienced in composite propeller is different is all direction. The stresses experienced along the length of the blade i.e., X direction is more. This is due to the primary thrust experienced in this direction later it is distributed. Similarly the more stresses is experienced at the root of the blade as shown in figure 3.1, figure3.2 and figure3.3 i.e., X, Y and Z direction respectively. The stresses are distributed along the length of the span. Equal thrust is distributed over the length of the blade. Figure 3.1 Stresses in X direction Figure 3.2 Stresses in Y direction Figure 3.3 Stresses in Z direction The following discussions are drawn from the present work The maximum deflection for the wooden propeller is 0.89mm

4. Madhusudhan BM Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 9( Version 4), September 2014, pp.79-82 www.ijera.com 82 | P a g e The maximum deflection for the composite propeller blade is 0.052mm, 0.69mm and 2.17mm in X, Y, and Z direction respectively. The maximum normal stress for the wooden propeller is 9.988 N/mm2. The maximum normal stress for the composite propeller is 628.55N/mm2. Stress of a composite propeller in X, Y and Z directions are 606.49Mpa, 628.55Mpa and 519.62Mpa. IV. CONCLUSION A solid wooden propeller is designed in CATIA as per the existing blade. Mass of the composite propeller blade is achieved by 90% less compared to the wooden blade. Roha cell is solid foam is used for better stiffness and to reduce deflection. A composite propeller blade is designed to withstand 4000RPM. Composite blade is designed to withstand the thrust of 1000N. New composite propeller blade shows less deflection compared to the wooden blade. REFERENCES [1] Taylor D.W, “The speed and power and ships”, Washington, 1933. [2] J.E.Conolly, “Strength of Propellers”, reads in London at a meeting of the royal intuition of naval architects on dec1960, pp 139-160. [3] Terje sonntvedt, “Propeller blade stresses, application of finite element methods” computers and structures, vol.4, pp193-204. [4] Toshio Yamatogi, H.M., Kiyoshi Uzawa, Kazuro Kageya, “Study on cavitation erosion of composite materials for marine propeller” 2010. [5] M.jourdian, visitor and J.L.Armand. “Strength of propeller blades-A numerical approach”, the society of naval architects and marine engineers, may 24-25, 1978, pp 20-1- 21-3. [6] G.H.M.Beek, visitor, lips B.V., Drunen “Hub-Blade interaction in propeller strength”, May 24-25, 1978, pp19-1-19-14. [7] George W.Stickle and John L Crigler. “Propeller analysis from experimental data” report No.712, pp 147-164. [8] W.J.Colclough and J.G.Russel “The Development of a Composite Propeller Blade with a CFRP Spar” aeronautical journal, Jan 1972, pp53-57. [9] J.G.Russel “Use of reinforced plastics in a composite propeller blade” plastics and polymers, Dec 1973 pp292-296. [10] H.J. Lin “Effect of stacking sequence of nonlinear hydroelastic behaviour composite propeller”, Journal of Mechanics, 2010. Vol. 26, No. 3: p. 293-298.

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