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Deserts and Desertification

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Information about Deserts and Desertification
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Published on September 24, 2008

Author: aSGuest169

Source: authorstream.com

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DESERTS & DESERTIFICATION : DESERTS & DESERTIFICATION What is desertification? : What is desertification? Land degradation – loss of land’s biological productivity One of world’s most alarming processes Caused by human activities and climate change THE PROCESS OF DESERTIFICATION : THE PROCESS OF DESERTIFICATION HOW DOES DESERTIFICATION OCCUR? : HOW DOES DESERTIFICATION OCCUR? Human activities Climatic conditions Biological diversity CAUSES & FACTORS : CAUSES & FACTORS Climatic factors Technological factors Economic factors Deforestation Population pressure Over exploitation of natural resources Slide 7: THE ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF DESERTIFICATION Slide 8: The negative impacts of desertification are twofold: Socio-economic Ecological Slide 9: It changes soil quality, damages soil structure and leads to the loss of soil nutrients It changes land surface characteristics It reduces the agricultural productivity of the land It leads to the loss of Ecosystem diversity ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS Soil Resources Slide 10: It changes water quality and quantity It causes loss of productivity and impairment of aquatic ecosystems Water Resources Slide 11: It leads to the reduction in biodiversity It reduces plant composition and abundance Wildlife, Plants And People Slide 12: It affects the regional and global energy balance, reduce carbon sequestration and storage and increase carbon dioxide emission contributing to the greenhouse effect It undermines the structure and functions of ecological systems such as biogeochemical cycles (i.e. carbon, hydrological, and nutrient cycles) Climate Slide 13: It influences the movements of atmospheric masses and rainfall It may intensify a general climatic trends toward greater aridity or it may initiate a change in local climate Climate (cont’d) SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS : SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS It can worsens the effects of poverty and dependence It weakens populations and institutions It reduces food security Socio-economic development is disequilibrium Slide 15: The most affected areas include: Micoud La Riche-Choiseul La Pointe-Choiseul Others include: Balembouche, Doree, Piaye, all south west of the island IMPACT OF DESERTIFICATION IN ST. LUCIA AND OTHER CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES CAUSES : CAUSES Climatic Variations/ Limited Rainfall/ Drought Deforestation Poor Farming practices Poor irrigation Fires Animal grazing Pictures of each affected area : Pictures of each affected area Micoud Area Pictures of each affected area : Pictures of each affected area Micoud Area 2 Pictures of each affected area : Pictures of each affected area Micoud Area 3 Pictures of each affected area : Pictures of each affected area La Riche Pictures of each affected area : Pictures of each affected area La Riche 2 Pictures of each affected area : Pictures of each affected area La Riche 3 Pictures of each affected area : Pictures of each affected area La Riche 4 Pictures of each affected area : Pictures of each affected area La Pointe Pictures of each affected area : Pictures of each affected area La Pointe 2 Soil erosion in other Caribbean countries : Soil erosion in other Caribbean countries Haiti Yallahs Valley –Jamaica Barbados Northern Range in Trinidad & Tobago MEASURES TAKEN TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION : MEASURES TAKEN TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION Terracing Contour Ploughing Crops can be grown on ridges and along slopes Check Dams can be built across gullies Mix Cropping Strip Planting along contours Steep slopes should be used for forest and pasture Contour Ploughing : Contour Ploughing Other measures taken by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Department : Other measures taken by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Department The establishment of Leucaena plots at La Pointe, Choiseul Discourage Cattle grazing on Steep slopes which would trigger soil erosion. Zoning of slopes i.e. determining what type of vegetation should be on certain slopes. Other measures taken by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Department (cont’d) : Other measures taken by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Department (cont’d) Documentary on local Agri-Focus programmes Regulating tree planting on the water catchment area at Talvern Babonneau Agricultural extension and engineering programmes Having regular lectures at schools and various community groups. PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE PLANS AIMED AT COMBATING DESERTIFICATION : PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE PLANS AIMED AT COMBATING DESERTIFICATION Past Activities : Past Activities Soil and water conservation programmes Watershed and Environmental Project Forest and Environmental Rehabilitation Project Development of Forestry Management Plan Formation of Water Catchment Groups Present Activities : Present Activities Establishment of A Water Resource Management Unit Implementation of The Greening Project Development of a National Environmental Strategy Establishment of a Regional Environmental Charter Establishment of The Aupicon Charcoal and Agricultural Producers group Future Plans : Future Plans Future plans for meeting the obligations under the Convention to combat desertification were developed at a National Consultation in March, 2000, through the development of a National Action Plan. The methodology proposed is as follows: Assessment of existing institutions involved in addressing land degradation issues Future Plans (cont’d) : Future Plans (cont’d) Assessment of land degradation processes Establishment of a group to identify affected areas Development of a national report at the community level for discussion. Initiate community discussion Convene representatives of communities at a national consultation Use the results of the consultation to develop a National Action Plan RECOMMENDATIONS : RECOMMENDATIONS Implementation of new laws and regulations Enforcement of existing laws and regulations Raising awareness about the problem. Mobilizing and involving people in the fight against desertification through education Reintroducing and promoting traditional farming practices Developing and Promoting sustainable agricultural practices THE END : THE END

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