Describe Defence Mechanisms - Humans

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Information about Describe Defence Mechanisms - Humans
Education

Published on November 5, 2008

Author: b.stev

Source: slideshare.net

Description

B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes,
immunoglobulins, primary and secondary immunological
response, antigen presenting cells, interleukins, cell surface
receptors MHC proteins, cytokines, antibody classification

b.stev Describe: Immune Defence - Humans

NON-specific immune response, description: Complement Interferon Inflammatory Response Fever Physical Barriers Chemical Inhibition Microbial Competition

Complement

Interferon

Inflammatory Response

Fever

Physical Barriers

Chemical Inhibition

Microbial Competition

COMPLEMENT SYSTEM a response system invasive microbes synthesis occurs liver (mostly) constitutes 5% globulin in the serum of the blood >20 proteins/ various protein fragments involved the 2 MAIN pathways of the COMPLEMENT SYSTEM starter proteins: attach to invasive microbe - gives recognition of it’s presence - the complement system responds

a response system invasive microbes

synthesis occurs liver (mostly)

constitutes 5% globulin in the serum of the blood

>20 proteins/ various protein fragments involved

2. CLASSICAL: group of proteins in the blood that triggers a specific antibody response to the pathogen 1. ALTERNATE: specific proteins bind in sequence to pathogen - initiates c a s c a d e of response enzymes secreted - enzymes attack pathogen’s cell membrane , (opens) DEATH results called: MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX one of the most useful weapons to the body (Wikipedia, 2008)

INTERFERON Invasive attack from bodies such as: virus bacteria foreign bodies tumour cells parasite ( s ) certain glycoprotein – known as, CYTOKINE is secreted produced : immune cells after foreign encounter (mostly) CYTOKINE(S): communicate a pathway by signalling a response from specific immune cells, throughout the various stages of the process, ie: - upgrade gene production, classical complement system - downgrade response, via the use of feedback inhibition

Invasive attack from bodies such as:

virus

bacteria

foreign bodies

tumour cells

parasite ( s )

PHAGOCYTES: (engulf unwanted matter) dispose of toxins, tired cells & dead foreign bodies PUS: (debris) accumulated from the immune response INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE affected region becomes inflamed when infected: blood circulation increases to the area blood vessels become dilated & open gaps allow the immune cells to pass immune cells mobilise to the site aided proteins also fuel the response PAIN felt - expanded tissues continually trigger nerves that signal, pressure : sensitivity results

affected region becomes inflamed when infected:

blood circulation increases to the area

blood vessels become dilated & open

gaps allow the immune cells to pass

immune cells mobilise to the site

aided proteins also fuel the response

LEUKOCYTE (white blood cell) – proliferates increased proliferation various immune cells (B/T cells) enhanced activity of : interferon enhanced leukocyte phagocytosis endotoxin (toxin inside pathogen)‏ effects decreased FEVER RESPONSE to microbe invasion : temperature increase (usually 1-2 o C) heart rate increase increase of muscle tone experience of, ‘the shivers.’ produce: unfavourable environment to the pathogen ie: some microbes only tolerate specific temperatures & disturbance (s) within their HOST ENVIRONMENT this response favours the bodies needs: (Wikipedia, 2008)

LEUKOCYTE (white blood cell) – proliferates

increased proliferation various immune cells (B/T cells)

enhanced activity of : interferon

enhanced leukocyte phagocytosis

endotoxin (toxin inside pathogen)‏ effects decreased

RESPONSE to microbe invasion :

temperature increase (usually 1-2 o C)

heart rate increase

increase of muscle tone

experience of, ‘the shivers.’

PLASTER: (band-aid) covers wound PHYSICAL BARRIERS HAIR : surface area over the skin (sense) SKIN : contains the physical body within repair/ renewal – maintains barrier NAILS : protects appendage ends - wounds/ bruising CLOTHES PROTECTIVE GEAR: masks/ gloves/ suit/ shoes QUARANTINE ENVIRONMENTS BUILDINGS

CHEMICAL INHIBITORS stomach acid: pH 2 – unfavourable to most bacteria mucus: traps microbes & debris mucus linings: cilia : move particle(s) out for excretion via - outward direction sebum: pH 5.5 – inhibits microbial growth bile: secreted by gallbladder to the duodenum enzyme: tears/ sweat/ saliva contain, lysozyme - disrupts cell wall (digests peptidoglycan)

MICROBIAL COMPETITION beneficial MICROBES out-compete pathogens: already present & established population secrete toxins/ inhibitor proteins to competitor already attached to specifically beneficial sites ie: hair follicle, mucous regions, digestive tract interferons stimulate immune response (Wikipedia, 2008)

beneficial MICROBES out-compete pathogens:

already present & established population

secrete toxins/ inhibitor proteins to competitor

already attached to specifically beneficial sites

ie: hair follicle, mucous regions, digestive tract

interferons stimulate immune response

Bibliography Kennedy. A. (1999). The inflammatory response . Retrieved October 18, 2008, from http//: www.alan.kennedy.name/crohns/primer/inflresp . htm - 11k - Wikipedia. (2008). Complement system - wikipedia,the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 17, 2008, from http//:www. en.wikipedia. org/wiki/ Complement _system - 66k - Wikipedia. (2008). Interferon - wikipedia,the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 17, 2008, from http//:www. en.wikipedia. org/wiki/ Interferon - 111k - Wikipedia. (2008). Inflammation - wikipedia,the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 17, 2008, from http//:www. en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Inflammation - 130k -

Wikipedia. (2008). Fever - wikipedia,the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 17, 2008, from http//:www. en.wikipedia. org/wiki/ Fever - 77k - Pommerville J.C. (2004). Alcamo’s – Fundamentals of Microbiology (7 th ed.). Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett.

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