Descent UInts and Groups.

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Information about Descent UInts and Groups.

Published on July 12, 2008

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Types of Descent and Descent Uniits. Marriage Alliances and Kinship Terminology Derived Therefrom.

Kinship III: Kinship Units and Groups Cultural Anthropology

Demonstrated and Stipulated Descent Demonstrated Descent: Descent is traced through all linking males/females to ancestor Stipulated descent Descent from ancestor Is assumed and cannot be traced through linking kin

Demonstrated Descent:

Descent is traced

through all linking males/females

to ancestor

Stipulated descent

Descent from ancestor

Is assumed and

cannot be traced through linking kin

Lineages and Clans Lineages: Unilineal descent units and groups Whose kin can demonstrate their descent From their ancestor Clans: Unilineal descent units and groups Whose kin can only stipulate their descent From their ancestors

Lineages:

Unilineal descent units and groups

Whose kin can demonstrate their descent

From their ancestor

Clans:

Unilineal descent units and groups

Whose kin can only stipulate their descent

From their ancestors

Descent Units and Descent Groups Descent organizes larger kin as well Descent Groups Descent Units

Descent organizes larger kin as well

Descent Groups

Descent Units

Descent Units A group of kin descended unilineally or bilaterally who reckon their descent for some purpose but who are not necessarily organized Example Navajo are matrilineal dispersed throughout countryside main function: hospitality

A group of kin

descended unilineally

or bilaterally

who reckon their descent for some purpose

but who are not necessarily organized

Example

Navajo are matrilineal

dispersed throughout countryside

main function: hospitality

Descent Groups (Corporate Groups) Are organized with the following characteristics Own estate: land, cattle, fishing/hunting ground May be owned by group or owned by their constituent families

Are organized with the following characteristics

Own estate: land, cattle, fishing/hunting ground

May be owned by group or

owned by their constituent families

Descent Groups: Rights and Obligations Estate entails rights and obligations Examples: Rights to cattle for bridewealth Obligation to provide cattle for bridewealth Obligation to defend herds (or add to them) Fulani: If one loses herd due to disease Others contribute to replenishment of here

Estate entails rights and obligations

Examples:

Rights to cattle for bridewealth

Obligation to provide cattle for bridewealth

Obligation to defend herds (or add to them)

Fulani:

If one loses herd due to disease

Others contribute to replenishment of here

Descent Groups: Perpetuity The lineage or clan is sociocentric It outlasts the life span of individuals Not unlike corporations and downsizing Contrasts with kindreds- egocentric Kindred comprises full brothers and sisters Overlaps with other kindreds When full siblings die, kindred dies

The lineage or clan is sociocentric

It outlasts the life span of individuals

Not unlike corporations and downsizing

Contrasts with kindreds- egocentric

Kindred comprises full brothers and sisters

Overlaps with other kindreds

When full siblings die, kindred dies

Legal Persons Corporations are defined as legal persons Similar to descent groups Kwakiutl: murder of noble of one clan by commoner of another Requires death of noble of commoner’s clan Responsibility is thereby collective New Guinea: murder requires revenge--regardless of individual view

Corporations are defined as legal persons

Similar to descent groups

Kwakiutl: murder of noble of one clan by commoner of another

Requires death of noble of commoner’s clan

Responsibility is thereby collective

New Guinea: murder requires revenge--regardless of individual view

Principles of Lineage Formation and Segmentation Suppose an extended family gets too large The family divides into two The families may retain ties as lineages When lineages get large They divide into two May retain affiliation as even larger lineages Process can continue indefinitely

Suppose an extended family gets too large

The family divides into two

The families may retain ties as lineages

When lineages get large

They divide into two

May retain affiliation as even larger lineages

Process can continue indefinitely

Patrilineal Descent Units/Groups Patrilocal extended families undergo division They can keep ties through lineages Process continues indefinitely At the end, they may form clans.

Patrilocal extended families undergo division

They can keep ties through lineages

Process continues indefinitely

At the end, they may form clans.

Matrilineal Descent Units/Groups Matrilocal extended families undergo like division Keep ties again through lineages Process continues indefinitely Again form clans over long term Main difference: role of brother and husband Authority figures compete for power Usually, segmentation involves Br-Si.

Matrilocal extended families undergo like division

Keep ties again through lineages

Process continues indefinitely

Again form clans over long term

Main difference: role of brother and husband

Authority figures compete for power

Usually, segmentation involves Br-Si.

Nonunilineal or Ambilineal Descent Groups Develops from ambilocal extended families--whose descent is bilateral Each couple chooses residence based on economic advantage Example: Kainga on Truk in Gilberts Kainga is a landholding unit When couple chooses residence, departing spouse retains rights But rights do not pass to his/her child

Develops from ambilocal extended families--whose descent is bilateral

Each couple chooses residence based on economic advantage

Example: Kainga on Truk in Gilberts

Kainga is a landholding unit

When couple chooses residence, departing spouse retains rights

But rights do not pass to his/her child

Ambilocal Descent Group: Conditions Usually found where Land is circumscribed by geography Islands Highlands And population shifts rapidly Another example: Scottish clans Arable land restricted in highland Similar practices observed

Usually found where

Land is circumscribed by geography

Islands

Highlands

And population shifts rapidly

Another example: Scottish clans

Arable land restricted in highland

Similar practices observed

Marriage as Alliance Another function of marriage: alliance European history: peace sealed by monarchial marriage Yanomamo: highest alliance is sealed by marriage Women marry cross-cousin--kind of protection No such protection if she marries outside Must reflect high degree of trust Ways to secure alliance: bridewealth and exchange marriage

Another function of marriage: alliance

European history: peace sealed by monarchial marriage

Yanomamo: highest alliance is sealed by marriage

Women marry cross-cousin--kind of protection

No such protection if she marries outside

Must reflect high degree of trust

Ways to secure alliance: bridewealth and exchange marriage

Bridewealth More than a marriage transaction Loss of daughter: loss of reproductivity Loss must be compensated. Bridewealth Entails payment by groom’s kin to wife’s kin Ensures that wife’s kin attracts wives for its sons Strengthens bond of kin through network of obligations

More than a marriage transaction

Loss of daughter: loss of reproductivity

Loss must be compensated.

Bridewealth

Entails payment by groom’s kin to wife’s kin

Ensures that wife’s kin attracts wives for its sons

Strengthens bond of kin through network of obligations

Bride Labor and Dowry Theme and variation: son proves his worth Ensures that wife will be looked after Dowry (p. 252) Transfer of wealth from wife’s family to husband Condition: he looks after wife’s welfare even after his own death An assurance that woman’s status is on par with husband’s

Theme and variation: son proves his worth

Ensures that wife will be looked after

Dowry (p. 252)

Transfer of wealth from wife’s family to husband

Condition: he looks after wife’s welfare even after his own death

An assurance that woman’s status is on par with husband’s

Exchange Theory: Mauss’s Analysis of the Gift Exchange Creates and maintains ties between two groups Three obligations To give: to form ties To receive To cement ties Failure: creates hostilities To repay Failure makes the recipient a beggar Results in his/her inferior status

Exchange Creates and maintains ties between two groups

Three obligations

To give: to form ties

To receive

To cement ties

Failure: creates hostilities

To repay

Failure makes the recipient a beggar

Results in his/her inferior status

Parallel and Cross-Cousin Marriage Parallel cousin marriage Father’s brother’s child or Mother’s sister’s child Cross-cousin marriage Sister’s brother’s child Mother’s brother’s child

Parallel cousin marriage

Father’s brother’s child or

Mother’s sister’s child

Cross-cousin marriage

Sister’s brother’s child

Mother’s brother’s child

Patrilateral Parallel Cousin Marriage Father’s brother’s children belong to same patrilineal descent unit Practiced among Arab nomadic peoples Example: Rwala Bedouin Serves to preserve wealth within extended family or lineage Disadvantage: limitation on alliance/network

Father’s brother’s children belong to same patrilineal descent unit

Practiced among Arab nomadic peoples

Example: Rwala Bedouin

Serves to preserve wealth within extended family or lineage

Disadvantage: limitation on alliance/network

Cross-Cousin Marriage Partner is always outside one’s own lineage or clan Illustration Mother’s brother’s daughter: belongs to lineage or clan of the brother Father’s sister’s daughter: belongs to lineage or clan of sister’s husband Conclusion: cross-cousins always belong to different lineages or clans

Partner is always outside one’s own lineage or clan

Illustration

Mother’s brother’s daughter: belongs to lineage or clan of the brother

Father’s sister’s daughter: belongs to lineage or clan of sister’s husband

Conclusion: cross-cousins always belong to different lineages or clans

Matrilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage Definition: marriage of man to his mother’s brother’s daughter Man is woman’s father’s sister’s son Reference point is always male What happens when everyone practices matrilateral cross-cousin marriage There are at least 3 groups They marry in a circle Diagram illustrates why

Definition: marriage of man to his mother’s brother’s daughter

Man is woman’s father’s sister’s son

Reference point is always male

What happens when everyone practices matrilateral cross-cousin marriage

There are at least 3 groups

They marry in a circle

Diagram illustrates why

Matrilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage: Alliance Patterns Effects on social status Group B takes wife from Group A Group B can never return favor with wife from own group Why: man from Group A would marry father’s sister’s daughter “ Violates” matrilateral cross-cousin rule Result: B is “beggar” to A: likewise C to B Has effect in stratified states, as will be seen

Effects on social status

Group B takes wife from Group A

Group B can never return favor with wife from own group

Why: man from Group A would marry father’s sister’s daughter

“ Violates” matrilateral cross-cousin rule

Result: B is “beggar” to A: likewise C to B

Has effect in stratified states, as will be seen

Patrilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage Woman is man’s father’s sister’s daughter But man is woman’s mother’s brother’s son Again, male is reference point Pattern is somewhat more complicated and rarer in occurrence Structural implications will be bypassed

Woman is man’s father’s sister’s daughter

But man is woman’s mother’s brother’s son

Again, male is reference point

Pattern is somewhat more complicated

and rarer in occurrence

Structural implications will be bypassed

Bilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage Two definitions Man marries either Mother’s brother’s daughter or Father’s sister’s daughter OR He marries both Mother’s brother’s daughter or Father’s sister’s daughter This diagram shows how

Two definitions

Man marries either

Mother’s brother’s daughter or

Father’s sister’s daughter OR

He marries both

Mother’s brother’s daughter or

Father’s sister’s daughter

This diagram shows how

Alliance Patterns: Bilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage Results If you have only two lineages And everyone does it You have only one choice: cross cousin An ideal type Only one male and only one female Applied to Yanomamo, every marriage Involves a cross-cousin tie (p 146. 148) Strong because it involves future spouses

Results

If you have only two lineages

And everyone does it

You have only one choice: cross cousin

An ideal type

Only one male and only one female

Applied to Yanomamo, every marriage

Involves a cross-cousin tie (p 146. 148)

Strong because it involves future spouses

Bilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage: Results Fissioning village, Villages always divide in pairs Two kinds of people: your kin and your future spouse’s kin Kin terms Iroquois cousin terminology: Parallel cousins: same as brother and sister Cross-cousin: Suaboya: female cross cousin and wife Hearoya: male cross-cousin and husband

Fissioning village,

Villages always divide in pairs

Two kinds of people: your kin and your future spouse’s kin

Kin terms

Iroquois cousin terminology:

Parallel cousins: same as brother and sister

Cross-cousin:

Suaboya: female cross cousin and wife

Hearoya: male cross-cousin and husband

Importance of Kin Terms: Bilateral Reflect how cousins are to behave toward each other Hawaiian: all cousins merge siblings with cousins Bilateral: marriage outside kin Eskimo: our own: immediate siblings separated from cousins Often found with nuclear families

Reflect how cousins are to behave toward each other

Hawaiian: all cousins merge siblings with cousins

Bilateral: marriage outside kin

Eskimo: our own: immediate siblings separated from cousins

Often found with nuclear families

Importance of Kin Terms: Unilineal Iroquois: Parallel cousins merged with siblings Separated from cross cousins Yanomamo: give indication of marriageable partners Guinea: Cross-cousins separated from immediate siblings and parallel cousins, Matrilateral and patrilateral cousins also separated Suggests matrilateral or patrilateral cross-cousin marriage is preferred

Iroquois: Parallel cousins merged with siblings

Separated from cross cousins

Yanomamo: give indication of marriageable partners

Guinea: Cross-cousins separated from immediate siblings and parallel cousins,

Matrilateral and patrilateral cousins also separated

Suggests matrilateral or patrilateral cross-cousin marriage is preferred

Kinship Terminology Much more could be said Omaha and Crow reflect Patrilineal and matrilineal relations, respectively Main point: terms are “markers” of basic relationships

Much more could be said

Omaha and Crow reflect

Patrilineal and matrilineal relations, respectively

Main point: terms are “markers” of basic relationships

Conclusion: Value of Marriage and Kinship Involves how gender relations are managed Sexual relations Division of labor Marriage and childbirth Involves relations outside immediate realm of kin Economic rights and obligations (next) Social control through other institutions

Involves how gender relations are managed

Sexual relations

Division of labor

Marriage and childbirth

Involves relations outside immediate realm of kin

Economic rights and obligations (next)

Social control through other institutions

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