Published on March 5, 2014
Ch 35:1 Democracy: Latin American Democracies
Democracy = government by the people Direct Democracy= all citizens meet to pass laws Indirect Democracy (republics) = citizens elect representatives to make laws for them
What is Democracy???
Democracy As a Goal To make a democracy work… People have to participate in the government People need to tools to make decisions (be able to read and write) A stable economy Belief in the rights of the individuals Laws that prevent others from abusing power National identity
Case Study: Brazil 1822- Brazil becomes a MONARCHY 1889- Brazil becomes a REPUBLIC GETULIO VARGAS= 1930’s, dictator of Brazil, suppressed political opposition, promoted economic growth Brazil became a MODERN COUNTRY
Kubitcheck’s Ambitious Program: JUSCELINO KUBITCHECK= 1956-1961, continued to develop economy, encouraged foreign investment to pay for development projects (Brasilia) 2 Reforms: 1. BRASILIA= new capital to be built in the country’ interior Result Foreign debt soared, inflation 2. LAND REFORM give large estates of land to peasants Result 1964, with the help of the wealthy Brazilians, the army seized power in a military coup
Brasilia: A Modern Capital
Military Dictators Military dictators ruled for 2o years Positives Negatives •Foreign investment •Development projects in Amazon brought in large amounts of $$$ •Economy boomed •Cut back on social issues •STANDARD of LIVING( (level of material comfort) deceased •Imposed censorship •Jailed, tortured and sometimes killed government critics
Road to Democracy (1/3) 1980’s- RECESSION (slow down in the economy) Result the generals decided to open up the political system, allowed direct elections of local, state and national officials
Road to Democracy (2/3) 1985- JOSE SARNEY- president Inherited a country full of problems (foreign debt and inflation) Lost support when he couldn’t solve the nation’s problems
Road to Democracy (3/3) 1994-1998- FERNANDO HENRIQUE CARDOSO Advocate of free markets Concerned with the widening gap between rich and poor Promoted economic reform
2002 Presidential Election 2002- JOSE SERRA vs LULA DA SILVA (Silva won) 2006- DA SILVA won again
Changes of Brazil Under Lula
Case Study: Mexico One-Party Rule 1917- after the Mexican Revolution, government passed the Constitution (democracy and promised reformed)
Beginnings of One-Party Domination 1920-1934- Mexico elected several generals as presidents NATIONAL REVOLUTIONARY PARTY= generals created a ruling party 1934-1940- President LAZARO CARDENAS Tried to improve life for peasants and workers Land reforms and labor rights Nationalized the Mexican oil industry (kicked out foreign oil companies)
The Party Becomes the PRI PRI= Institutional Revolutionary Party, started in 1946, Controlled the congress and won every political election PROBLEMS Foreign debt Lacking land and jobs Suffered economic problem 1. Protestors gathered at an Aztec market soldiers opened fire on protestors 2. 1980’s- oil discovered in Mexico 1981- oil prices around the world fell, cutting Mexico’s oil revenue in half
Economic & Political Crises 1988- CARLOS SALINAS won the presidency Salinas signed NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) What did NAFTA do? Removed trade barriers between Mexico, the US and Canada
The PRI Loses Control After a presidential candidate was assassinated, many Mexicans thought there was no chance of democracy 1994- ERNESTO ZEDILLO elected 2000- Mexican voters ended 71 years of PRI rule
New Policies & Programs 2000-VICENTE FOX 2006- FELIPE CALDERON Both wanted: Reformed the police Rooting out political corruption Free market Wanted the US to legalize the status of millions of illegal Mexican immigrant workers
Case Study: Argentina (1/2) Peron Rules Argentina: Major Exports: Grain & Beef Industrial Nation with a large working class 1946- Argentine workers supported an army officer, JUAN PERONestablished a dictatorship
Peron Rules Argentina (2/2) EVA PERON- aka EVITA, supported husband, gave advice PERONS- offered social programs with popular appeal After Eva died, Peron’s popularity declined Peron’s enemies- the military and the Catholic Churchmoved in on him Military ousted Peron and drove him into exile
Evita Peron (1919-1952)
Evita: Behind the Scenes
Evita: A National Icon
Repression in Argentina For many years, the military controlled Argentine politics 1973- Peron returned and ruled for 1 year before he died 1976- Generals seized power again 1980’s-torture and murder were everyday events
Democracy & the Economy 1982- Argentine government went to war with Britain over the nearby Falkland Islands and suffered a defeat 1983- RAUL ALFONSINpresident in the country’s first free election in 37 years 1989- CARLOS MENEM 2002- Argentina had an employment rate of 24% 2006- Argentina repaid debt (to IMF- International Monetary Fund)
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