Defining Ecotourism - by Alan A Lew

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Information about Defining Ecotourism - by Alan A Lew

Published on April 27, 2008

Author: alew

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Covers different ways that the term "ecotourism" is used, with examples from China, Malaysia and Indonesia.

Defining Ecotourism Alan A. Lew Dept. of Geography, Planning & Recreation Northern Arizona University http://AlanLew.com Source: http://Slideshare.net/alew All photos in this file © Alan A Lew

Defining Ecotourism OUTLINE Greening of Consumers Definitions of Ecotourism Asian Examples Ecotour Operator Survey Conclusions Challenges Market THEMES Definitions and Practices of Ecotourism Are Culture Based and Bound The Form and Nature of Ecotourism Represents the Cutting Edge of a Country’s Environmental Ethic

OUTLINE

Greening of Consumers

Definitions of Ecotourism

Asian Examples

Ecotour Operator Survey

Conclusions

Challenges

Market

THEMES

Definitions and Practices of Ecotourism

Are Culture Based and Bound

The Form and Nature of Ecotourism

Represents the Cutting Edge of a Country’s Environmental Ethic

Growth in Green & Eco- Blogosphere Growth in Online Discussions of Sustainable Development 50% more discussion at end of 2007 than at start Global Warming - main focus at start of year Personal Actions - main focus at end of year Recycling, Minimizing packaging, Carpooling Links between Personal Health & Environmental Wellness Pollution, toxins and sustainable agriculture

Blogosphere Growth in Online Discussions of Sustainable Development

50% more discussion at end of 2007 than at start

Global Warming - main focus at start of year

Personal Actions - main focus at end of year

Recycling, Minimizing packaging, Carpooling

Links between Personal Health & Environmental Wellness

Pollution, toxins and sustainable agriculture

Green Boomers Forty million Green boomers in US (13.3% of US population; 2007 survey by Focalyst) More Demanding of Product + Service Quality More Critical of Advertising more likely to believe there is not much truth in advertising wish advertising included more real product information more brand loyal than other boomers across all product categories Mature boomers more likely to be “green.” more aware of their legacy and leaving a positive mark on the world Other findings from Focalyst: Green boomers are watching less television spend more time with print media Boomers with annual incomes of less than $50,000 are more “green” than boomers with incomes of over $150,000

Forty million Green boomers in US

(13.3% of US population; 2007 survey by Focalyst)

More Demanding of Product + Service Quality

More Critical of Advertising

more likely to believe there is not much truth in advertising

wish advertising included more real product information

more brand loyal than other boomers across all product categories

Mature boomers more likely to be “green.”

more aware of their legacy and leaving a positive mark on the world

Other findings from Focalyst:

Green boomers are watching less television

spend more time with print media

Boomers with annual incomes of less than $50,000 are more “green” than boomers with incomes of over $150,000

Ecotourism - Popular & Industry Definitions The International Ecotourism Society (TIES): Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people . Green Globe 21 International and Ecotourism Australia: Ecologically sustainable tourism with a primary focus on experiencing natural areas that fosters environmental and cultural understanding , appreciation and conservation . Martha Honey - Ecotourism and Sustainable Development (book) Ecotourism is travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strive to be low impact and (usually) small scale . It helps educate the traveler; provides funds for conservation ; directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights (Honey, 1999, p. 25)

The International Ecotourism Society (TIES):

Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people .

Green Globe 21 International and Ecotourism Australia:

Ecologically sustainable tourism with a primary focus on experiencing natural areas that fosters environmental and cultural understanding , appreciation and conservation .

Martha Honey - Ecotourism and Sustainable Development (book)

Ecotourism is travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strive to be low impact and (usually) small scale . It helps educate the traveler; provides funds for conservation ; directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights (Honey, 1999, p. 25)

Thailand’s First Ecotourism & Adventure Travel Show 30 May - 2 June 2002 Ecotourism & Adventure Tourism Products camping, trekking, diving accessories & apparel boat & water sports gear, beachwear hotels, resorts, eco-lodges & homestay destinations ecotourism & adventure tour packages fitness, health & spa centers nutrition products & travel gear Over 50,000 visitors tour operators hotels & resorts tourism-related public & private agencies Thai travelers especially university & high school students international visitors foreign expatriates residing in Thailand

Ecotourism & Adventure Tourism Products

camping, trekking, diving accessories & apparel

boat & water sports gear, beachwear

hotels, resorts, eco-lodges & homestay destinations

ecotourism & adventure tour packages

fitness, health & spa centers

nutrition products & travel gear

Over 50,000 visitors

tour operators

hotels & resorts

tourism-related public & private agencies

Thai travelers

especially university & high school students

international visitors

foreign expatriates residing in Thailand

Ecotourism: An Academic Definition David Fennell (1999 p.43) – Definition based on a reviewing 15 definitions: Ecotourism is a sustainable form of natural resource-based tourism that focuses primarily on experiencing and learning about nature, and which is ethically managed to be low-impact , non-consumptive , and locally oriented (control, benefits, and scale). It typically occurs in natural areas, and should contribute to the conservation or preservation of such areas . 13 Principles - ranked by frequency: Interest in nature Contributes to conservation Reliance on parks & protected areas Benefits local people / long-term benefits Education and study Low impact/non-consumptive 7. Ethics/responsibility 8. Management 9. Sustainable 10. Enjoyment & appreciation 11. Culture 12. Adventure 13. Small scale

David Fennell (1999 p.43) – Definition based on a reviewing 15 definitions:

Ecotourism is a sustainable form of natural resource-based tourism that focuses primarily on experiencing and learning about nature, and which is ethically managed to be low-impact , non-consumptive , and locally oriented (control, benefits, and scale). It typically occurs in natural areas, and should contribute to the conservation or preservation of such areas .

13 Principles - ranked by frequency:

Interest in nature

Contributes to conservation

Reliance on parks & protected areas

Benefits local people / long-term benefits

Education and study

Low impact/non-consumptive

7. Ethics/responsibility

8. Management

9. Sustainable

10. Enjoyment & appreciation

11. Culture

12. Adventure

13. Small scale

Education & Commodification

Definition Problems … of the 25 government tourism agencies that chose to define "ecotourism," 21 chose to create their own definition… (Mader 2004) Ecotourism eludes firm definition because it is a complex notion which ambitiously attempts to: describe an activity, set forth a philosophy ,and espouse a model of development. (Simmons 1999; Ziffer 1989)

… of the 25 government tourism agencies that chose to define "ecotourism," 21 chose to create their own definition… (Mader 2004)

Ecotourism eludes firm definition because it is a complex notion which ambitiously attempts to:

describe an activity,

set forth a philosophy ,and

espouse a model of development.

(Simmons 1999; Ziffer 1989)

Ecotourism Continuums 1. Relative Ecotourism -&- Absolute/Pure Ecotourism (Shore 2004) Relative: Overall Impact is Environmentally Sound Though some individual components may not be Absolute: All Components are Environmentally Sound 2. Nature/Adventure Tourism -&- Sustainable Development Earliest known Definition of Ecotourism “… traveling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated areas with the specific objective of studying, admiring, and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as any existing cultural manifestations (both past and present) found in these areas.” (Lascurain, 1991) Sustainable Tourism Definition: “ Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present [in particular the essential needs of the worlds poor] without compromising the needs of future generations to meet their own needs.” (Brundtland, 1987)

1. Relative Ecotourism -&- Absolute/Pure Ecotourism (Shore 2004)

Relative: Overall Impact is Environmentally Sound

Though some individual components may not be

Absolute: All Components are Environmentally Sound

2. Nature/Adventure Tourism -&- Sustainable Development

Earliest known Definition of Ecotourism

“… traveling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated areas with the specific objective of studying, admiring, and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as any existing cultural manifestations (both past and present) found in these areas.” (Lascurain, 1991)

Sustainable Tourism Definition:

“ Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present [in particular the essential needs of the worlds poor] without compromising the needs of future generations to meet their own needs.” (Brundtland, 1987)

Domestic / Mass Ecotourism in Asia David Weaver Three Established Mass Ecotourism Regions / Themes Blossom and Waterfall Region Japan & South Korea Nature Rainforest and Reef Region Indonesia & Malaysia Sustainable Development Mountain Trekking Region Himalayas & Northern Thailand (& Laos) Adventure (trekking)

David Weaver

Three Established Mass Ecotourism Regions / Themes

Blossom and Waterfall Region

Japan & South Korea

Nature

Rainforest and Reef Region

Indonesia & Malaysia

Sustainable Development

Mountain Trekking Region

Himalayas & Northern Thailand (& Laos)

Adventure (trekking)

Ecotourism in China Ecotourism = “sheng tai nu you” = “Tourism that does not exploit or harm the environment, ecology or society” Ecotourism in China Mostly used as a marketing tool to earn income to support nature reserve management (Han and Ren 2001) = Nature Tourism Includes Mass Tourism, Adventure Tourism, … Lack of ecotourism education or guidelines among Nature reserve managers Traveling public Lack of research & understanding on nature reserve ecology Lack of uniform nature reserve management practices & training Reflects China’s Long isolation from rest of the world Emphasis on market solutions to common pool resources

Ecotourism = “sheng tai nu you”

= “Tourism that does not exploit or harm the environment, ecology or society”

Ecotourism in China

Mostly used as a marketing tool to earn income to support nature reserve management (Han and Ren 2001)

= Nature Tourism

Includes Mass Tourism, Adventure Tourism, …

Lack of ecotourism education or guidelines among

Nature reserve managers

Traveling public

Lack of research & understanding on nature reserve ecology

Lack of uniform nature reserve management practices & training

Reflects China’s

Long isolation from rest of the world

Emphasis on market solutions to common pool resources

SW China Ecotourism

Yunnan’s Stone Forest

Yunnan Culture

Ecotourism in Southeast Asia Malaysia A leader in national park and nature reserve management Focus on Natural Ecosystem Management Combined with ecotourism principles Taman Negara National Park (West Malaysia) Sarawak and Sabah on Borneo (East Malaysia) Benefitted from Malaysia’s growing middle class Indonesia Most popular ecotour destination until 1997 political crisis Focus on Ecotourism to replace agriculture & fishing in nature reserves Pro-poor economic development Initial success has struggles in recent years Major problems with illegal logging and burning of rainforests to clear land

Malaysia

A leader in national park and nature reserve management

Focus on Natural Ecosystem Management

Combined with ecotourism principles

Taman Negara National Park (West Malaysia)

Sarawak and Sabah on Borneo (East Malaysia)

Benefitted from Malaysia’s growing middle class

Indonesia

Most popular ecotour destination until 1997 political crisis

Focus on Ecotourism to replace agriculture & fishing in nature reserves

Pro-poor economic development

Initial success has struggles in recent years

Major problems with illegal logging and burning of rainforests to clear land

Indonesia

Iban / Dayak Cultural Ecotourism in Sarawak, Malaysia

PATA Ecotourism

Borneo Orangutan

Survey of Ecotourism Companies Survey of North American Tour Companies with Ecotours to the Asia-Pacific (excluding SW Asia) Absolute / Pure Ecotourism Ecotourism to Asia grew 20% a year in the 1990s - prior to 1997 Top Destinations #1 = Indonesia #2 = Countries bordering the Himalayas Secondary ecotour destinations Established destinations: China & Thailand Emerging destinations: Indochina & Central Asia

Survey of North American Tour Companies

with Ecotours to the Asia-Pacific (excluding SW Asia)

Absolute / Pure Ecotourism

Ecotourism to Asia grew 20% a year

in the 1990s - prior to 1997

Top Destinations

#1 = Indonesia

#2 = Countries bordering the Himalayas

Secondary ecotour destinations

Established destinations: China & Thailand

Emerging destinations: Indochina & Central Asia

Where Asia Ecotours Went (prior to 1997) Country # Tour % of all Tour or Region Companies Companies Indonesia 16 40.0 India 13 32.5 Australia 12 30.0 Nepal 12 30.0 Bhutan 10 25.0 New Zealand 8 20.0 Tibet 8 20.0 China 7 17.5 Thailand 7 17.5 Burma 5 12.5 Cambodia 5 12.5 Laos 5 12.5 Pakistan 5 12.5 Malaysia 4 10.0 Papua New Guinea 4 10.0 Russian Far East 4 10.0 Vietnam 4 10.0 Central Asia 3 7.5 Uzbekistan, Kyrgistan Japan 3 7.5 Mongolia 3 7.5 Sikkim 3 7.5 Philippines 2 5.0

Country # Tour % of all Tour

or Region Companies Companies

Indonesia 16 40.0

India 13 32.5

Australia 12 30.0

Nepal 12 30.0

Bhutan 10 25.0

New Zealand 8 20.0

Tibet 8 20.0

China 7 17.5

Thailand 7 17.5

Burma 5 12.5

Cambodia 5 12.5

Laos 5 12.5

Pakistan 5 12.5

Malaysia 4 10.0

Papua New Guinea 4 10.0

Russian Far East 4 10.0

Vietnam 4 10.0

Central Asia 3 7.5 Uzbekistan, Kyrgistan

Japan 3 7.5

Mongolia 3 7.5

Sikkim 3 7.5

Philippines 2 5.0

Types of Ecotours NATURE (22 respondents) 81.2% Asia Pacific / 18.2% North America Wildlife (5), Nature (4), Natural history (3), Jungles / Rainforests (2), Science-based nature tours (2), Fossil expeditions, National Park's, Nature reserves, Orangutans, Ornithology, Village wildlife conservation, Zoos CULTURE (14 respondents) 57.1% Asia Pacific / 42.9% North America based Culture (6), Agriculture, Anthropology, Countryside tours, Culture exchanges, Ethnic area lodge, Food, Local guides, Sustainable technology ADVENTURE (4 respondents) 0% Asia Pacific / 100% North America based Soft adventure (2), Adventure, Hard adventure, Outdoor adventure N = 31 respondents

NATURE (22 respondents)

81.2% Asia Pacific / 18.2% North America

Wildlife (5), Nature (4), Natural history (3), Jungles / Rainforests (2), Science-based nature tours (2), Fossil expeditions, National Park's, Nature reserves, Orangutans, Ornithology, Village wildlife conservation, Zoos

CULTURE (14 respondents)

57.1% Asia Pacific / 42.9% North America based

Culture (6), Agriculture, Anthropology, Countryside tours, Culture exchanges, Ethnic area lodge, Food, Local guides, Sustainable technology

ADVENTURE (4 respondents)

0% Asia Pacific / 100% North America based

Soft adventure (2), Adventure, Hard adventure, Outdoor adventure

N = 31 respondents

Ecotour Activities PHYSICAL-LAND (15 respondents) 60% - Asia Pacific / 40% - North America based companies Trekking (7), Walking (3), Cycling/Mountain Biking (2), Backpacking, Bush Walking, Day hiking, Physical activity PHYSICAL-WATER (6 respondents) 50% Asia Pacific / 50% North America based Boat rides, Diving, Rafting, Sailing, Sea Kayaking, Whitewater EDUCATION / OTHER (11 respondents) 42.9% Asia Pacific / 57.1% North America based Educational (3), Guest scholar/teachers/experts (3), Animal riding safaris (2), Bird watching (2), Local educational programs, Photo-taking safaris, Study tours N = 31 respondents

PHYSICAL-LAND (15 respondents)

60% - Asia Pacific / 40% - North America based companies

Trekking (7), Walking (3), Cycling/Mountain Biking (2), Backpacking, Bush Walking, Day hiking, Physical activity

PHYSICAL-WATER (6 respondents)

50% Asia Pacific / 50% North America based

Boat rides, Diving, Rafting, Sailing, Sea Kayaking, Whitewater

EDUCATION / OTHER (11 respondents)

42.9% Asia Pacific / 57.1% North America based

Educational (3), Guest scholar/teachers/experts (3), Animal riding safaris (2), Bird watching (2), Local educational programs, Photo-taking safaris, Study tours

N = 31 respondents

Ecotourism Management Policies Use guides native to visited area * 31 77.5% Have an education program for local guides 26 65.0% Provide a pre-arrival information packet 24 60.0% Providing a % of tour profits to local org.s 19 47.5% Participate in local cleanup programs 17 42.5% Pack-it-out requirements 15 37.5% Other activities to support sustainable dev. ** 16 40.0% N = 40 respondents * 67% use local guides exclusively ** Other Activities: "Donations:" Generous donations to local charities; Funds for conservation & research (2); Land purchases for conservation; Sponsor Village Folk Theatre; Support clinic, school and religious organizations; Support local environmental groups "Education:" Environmental education kits; Quality environmental education; Scholarships; Post-trip mailings; Teach adult education class in ecotourism; Up to 70 pages long pre-arrival packets; Support village libraries; Environmental reading library "Services:" Provide medical services; Lobby government to protect rainforest; Tree planting (2); Peer exchanges; Support orphanages "Economic Development:" Use of all reusable materials; Support ecovillages; Encourage eco-purchases; Support local handicrafts; Invest in eco-lodges; Support indigenous tourism projects

Use guides native to visited area * 31 77.5%

Have an education program for local guides 26 65.0%

Provide a pre-arrival information packet 24 60.0%

Providing a % of tour profits to local org.s 19 47.5%

Participate in local cleanup programs 17 42.5%

Pack-it-out requirements 15 37.5%

Other activities to support sustainable dev. ** 16 40.0%

N = 40 respondents

* 67% use local guides exclusively

** Other Activities:

"Donations:" Generous donations to local charities; Funds for conservation & research (2); Land purchases for conservation; Sponsor Village Folk Theatre; Support clinic, school and religious organizations; Support local environmental groups

"Education:" Environmental education kits; Quality environmental education; Scholarships; Post-trip mailings; Teach adult education class in ecotourism; Up to 70 pages long pre-arrival packets; Support village libraries; Environmental reading library

"Services:" Provide medical services; Lobby government to protect rainforest; Tree planting (2); Peer exchanges; Support orphanages

"Economic Development:" Use of all reusable materials; Support ecovillages; Encourage eco-purchases; Support local handicrafts; Invest in eco-lodges; Support indigenous tourism projects

Other Ecotour Characteristics Extra Cost of Conducting Eco-sensitive Tours High: 40.0 % of Tour Price Mean: 11.1 Low: 0.0 Willingness of Participants to Donate Money to Local Environmental and Social Causes Very willing 38.9% Somewhat willing 55.6 Not Interested or willing 5.6 Management of Tourist Behaviour - We strictly enforce sensitive Behaviour on our tours 42.9% - We explain proper behaviour, but leave it up to the individual 33.3 - We only explain proper behaviour in the most sensitive place 11.9 - We seldom ever direct tourists in how to behave 11.9 Comments: Our travellers typically already know how to behave We talk to individuals privately if there is a problem with their behaviour Our policies vary based upon the destination Our operators are responsible for establishing proper behaviour We don't accept participants who will not behave Policies vary depending on the place N = 42 respondents

Extra Cost of Conducting Eco-sensitive Tours

High: 40.0 % of Tour Price

Mean: 11.1

Low: 0.0

Willingness of Participants to Donate Money to Local Environmental and Social Causes

Very willing 38.9%

Somewhat willing 55.6

Not Interested or willing 5.6

Management of Tourist Behaviour

- We strictly enforce sensitive Behaviour on our tours 42.9%

- We explain proper behaviour, but leave it up to the individual 33.3

- We only explain proper behaviour in the most sensitive place 11.9

- We seldom ever direct tourists in how to behave 11.9

Comments:

Our travellers typically already know how to behave

We talk to individuals privately if there is a problem with their behaviour

Our policies vary based upon the destination

Our operators are responsible for establishing proper behaviour

We don't accept participants who will not behave

Policies vary depending on the place

N = 42 respondents

Tour Group Size Smallest Average Largest Group Group Group Mean 4.5 11.4 24.7 Median 2 8 15 Range 1 - 22 3 - 60 4 - 125 Do you intentionally limit tour group sizes? Yes 34 (81%) No 8 (19%) If yes, what is your size limit? Mean: 14.9 Median: 14.5 Range: 6 - 40

Smallest Average Largest

Group Group Group

Mean 4.5 11.4 24.7

Median 2 8 15

Range 1 - 22 3 - 60 4 - 125

Do you intentionally limit tour group sizes?

Yes 34 (81%) No 8 (19%)

If yes, what is your size limit?

Mean: 14.9

Median: 14.5

Range: 6 - 40

Reasons Limiting Tour Group Size – p.1 IMPACTS: Impacts are greater with more than 16 persons To reduce/lessen impact/damage (7) To ensure sustainable impact To minimize cultural concerns/impacts (3) Prevent negative impacts on culturally sensitive areas To minimize environmental impacts (3) To ensure privacy Lower impact from camping We will limit tour size to one person to some pristine environments to lessen environmental and animal damage SERVICE: Guides are unable to have personal contact and control the situation with more than 17 persons More than eight is a mob Ease of handling/controlling smaller groups (2) Some private groups may exceed our maximum Logistics of moving too large a group in the destination region Manageable, yet profitable, size We break our larger groups into smaller groups of four to five persons each for daily activities

IMPACTS:

Impacts are greater with more than 16 persons

To reduce/lessen impact/damage (7)

To ensure sustainable impact

To minimize cultural concerns/impacts (3)

Prevent negative impacts on culturally sensitive areas

To minimize environmental impacts (3)

To ensure privacy

Lower impact from camping

We will limit tour size to one person to some pristine environments to lessen environmental and animal damage

SERVICE:

Guides are unable to have personal contact and control the situation with more than 17 persons

More than eight is a mob

Ease of handling/controlling smaller groups (2)

Some private groups may exceed our maximum

Logistics of moving too large a group in the destination region

Manageable, yet profitable, size

We break our larger groups into smaller groups of four to five persons each for daily activities

Reasons Limiting Tour Group Size – p.2 CAPACITY: Due to the carrying capacity of the product (2) Safety and the ability to airlift out of National Parks and mountains by helicopter if the weather turns bad Our maximum size depends on the itinerary Depending on the destination, group sizes may be limited to as little as two persons Based on capacity of lodges/We are able to use smaller lodges (2) Allows use of smaller vehicles to get to more remote places EXPERIENCE: To render more in-depth insight and equal service to each client To ensure a quality experience (4) To enhance enjoyment of the environment and activities Smaller size results in a more genuine experience Better group rapport/dynamics (2) Increased opportunity to interact with locals / cross-cultural experience (2) Provide more personal contact/attention (3)

CAPACITY:

Due to the carrying capacity of the product (2)

Safety and the ability to airlift out of National Parks and mountains by helicopter if the weather turns bad

Our maximum size depends on the itinerary

Depending on the destination, group sizes may be limited to as little as two persons

Based on capacity of lodges/We are able to use smaller lodges (2)

Allows use of smaller vehicles to get to more remote places

EXPERIENCE:

To render more in-depth insight and equal service to each client

To ensure a quality experience (4)

To enhance enjoyment of the environment and activities

Smaller size results in a more genuine experience

Better group rapport/dynamics (2)

Increased opportunity to interact with locals / cross-cultural experience (2)

Provide more personal contact/attention (3)

Conclusions: Asia – Tourism Challenge s Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation APEC - Government representatives Leading Tourism Problems Environmental Pollution Air Traffic Congestion Overcrowding at Major Attractions Private Sector respondents to same survey Leading Tourism Problems Excessive Controls over the use of Sensitive Natural Areas Conflicts between Tour Operators and Natural Resource Managers Exploitation vs. Conservation Issues The ‘ Sustainable’ ‘Development’ Paradox

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation

APEC - Government representatives

Leading Tourism Problems

Environmental Pollution

Air Traffic Congestion

Overcrowding at Major Attractions

Private Sector respondents to same survey

Leading Tourism Problems

Excessive Controls over the use of Sensitive Natural Areas

Conflicts between Tour Operators and Natural Resource Managers

Exploitation vs. Conservation Issues

The ‘ Sustainable’ ‘Development’ Paradox

Conclusions - Ecotourism Market Relatively Small, Niche Market May be good for the environment, But may not meet economic needs of the community Variety of Objectives Education - Public relations Financial support for organizations nature and cultural conservation Marketing tool for up-market tourists conservation oriented consumers Continuums of Definitions and Uses Part Ecotourism to All Ecotourism Nature Based Tourism to Sustainable Development

Relatively Small, Niche Market

May be good for the environment,

But may not meet economic needs of the community

Variety of Objectives

Education - Public relations

Financial support for organizations

nature and cultural conservation

Marketing tool for

up-market tourists

conservation oriented consumers

Continuums of Definitions and Uses

Part Ecotourism to All Ecotourism

Nature Based Tourism to Sustainable Development

Ecotourism & Mass Tourism How to Make Mass Tourism Socially Responsible Environmentally Sustainable Ecotourists & Mass Tourists Both Can Be: Green & Sustainable at ecotourism sites Hedonist & Exploitative at other mass tourism sites “ Greenwashing” Tours & Attractions / Eco-pirates Selling un-green products as green or eco

How to Make Mass Tourism

Socially Responsible

Environmentally Sustainable

Ecotourists & Mass Tourists

Both Can Be:

Green & Sustainable

at ecotourism sites

Hedonist & Exploitative

at other mass tourism sites

“ Greenwashing” Tours & Attractions / Eco-pirates

Selling un-green products as green or eco

Ecotourism & Political Economy Ecotourism: Relies on the Mass Tourism Infrastructure Airlines, Automobiles, Hotels, Imported Foods Similar carbon Footprint Maintains Dependency & Neocolonial Power Relationships Between Developed Center & Developing Periphery Exists in larger context of Global & Local - Politics & Economic Interests Different Stakeholders Co-opt “Ecotourism” Government (local, national, supranational) Business Interests - NGOs Residents/Hosts - Tourists/Guests

Ecotourism: Relies on the Mass Tourism Infrastructure

Airlines, Automobiles, Hotels, Imported Foods

Similar carbon Footprint

Maintains Dependency & Neocolonial Power Relationships

Between Developed Center & Developing Periphery

Exists in larger context of

Global & Local - Politics & Economic Interests

Different Stakeholders Co-opt “Ecotourism”

Government (local, national, supranational)

Business Interests - NGOs

Residents/Hosts - Tourists/Guests

Defining Ecotourism OUTLINE Examples of Ecotourism Definitions of Ecotourism Asian Context Ecotour Operator Survey Conclusions Challenges Market THEMES Definitions and Practices of Ecotourism Are Culture Based and Bound The Form and Nature of Ecotourism Represents the Cutting Edge of a Country’s Environmental Ethic

OUTLINE

Examples of Ecotourism

Definitions of Ecotourism

Asian Context

Ecotour Operator Survey

Conclusions

Challenges

Market

THEMES

Definitions and Practices of Ecotourism

Are Culture Based and Bound

The Form and Nature of Ecotourism

Represents the Cutting Edge of a Country’s Environmental Ethic

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