Defending The Faith Master

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Information about Defending The Faith Master

Published on December 26, 2007

Author: jdlongmire

Source: slideshare.net

Defending the Faith Practical Apologetics for our times. I believe in Christianity as I believe that the sun has risen: not only because I see it, but because by it I see everything else… C.S. Lewis

What are we doing? Introductory Apologetics Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. NOT an apology! Someone who engages in apologetics is called an apologist. comes from the Greek word apologia (Ἀπολογία), meaning the defense of a position against an attack – http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apologetics The origin of the concept of apologetics lies in the beginnings of Christianity. Between the second and fourth century, a number of Christian teachers wrote defenses of Christianity against pagan critics http:// www.calvarychapel.com/redbarn/terms.htm Access to Tools, Ideas and Concepts

Introductory Apologetics

Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position.

NOT an apology!

Someone who engages in apologetics is called an apologist.

comes from the Greek word apologia (Ἀπολογία), meaning the defense of a position against an attack – http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apologetics

The origin of the concept of apologetics lies in the beginnings of Christianity. Between the second and fourth century, a number of Christian teachers wrote defenses of Christianity against pagan critics http:// www.calvarychapel.com/redbarn/terms.htm

Access to Tools, Ideas and Concepts

Why are we doing this? Our faith is being challenged more & more by contemporary culture Da Vinci Code & “New Gospels” Evolution & Naturalism Competing Religions & Cults Relativism and Post-Modernism 1 Peter 3:15 - but in your hearts regard Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you;

Our faith is being challenged more & more by contemporary culture

Da Vinci Code & “New Gospels”

Evolution & Naturalism

Competing Religions & Cults

Relativism and Post-Modernism

1 Peter 3:15 - but in your hearts regard Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you;

What is in it for you? (1) A more confident Christian walk by knowing that it is rationally justifiable – we need not check our brains out at the door when we come to church (2) Increased confidence in our ability to share the Gospel in a secular world – secular society has marginalized the person of faith (3) A new way to witness – challenge the unsaved to rethink the Christian stereotype (4) Obedience to God’s Word: we are called to be disciplined…”Buy the truth and do not sell it; get wisdom, discipline and understanding.” (proverbs 23:23) (5) Have you encountered a situation where your faith was tried or challenged by an acquaintance, friend, or family member or by worldly wisdom? http://www.apologetics.net/Apologetics_101.htm

(1) A more confident Christian walk by knowing that it is rationally justifiable – we need not check our brains out at the door when we come to church

(2) Increased confidence in our ability to share the Gospel in a secular world – secular society has marginalized the person of faith

(3) A new way to witness – challenge the unsaved to rethink the Christian stereotype

(4) Obedience to God’s Word: we are called to be disciplined…”Buy the truth and do not sell it; get wisdom, discipline and understanding.” (proverbs 23:23)

(5) Have you encountered a situation where your faith was tried or challenged by an acquaintance, friend, or family member or by worldly wisdom?

Methods Evidentialism Christian apologetics is a form of pre-evangelism intellectual preparation that precedes the actual gospel presentation the Christian witness to the non-christian inquirer should initially set aside the existence of God, the claims of Christ and the authority of the Bible Presuppositionalism one should not try to isolate the apologetic task from the evangelical witness and the theological context One should not set aside the authoritative claims of God, Christ and Scripture in a quest for common ground with the skeptic Nor should one grant the hypothetical possibility of a world independent of God that can successfully function and be successfully understood in terms of the axioms of logic and science http://capo.org/cpc/apolo00.htm

Evidentialism

Christian apologetics is a form of pre-evangelism

intellectual preparation that precedes the actual gospel presentation

the Christian witness to the non-christian inquirer should initially set aside the existence of God, the claims of Christ and the authority of the Bible

Presuppositionalism

one should not try to isolate the apologetic task from the evangelical witness and the theological context

One should not set aside the authoritative claims of God, Christ and Scripture in a quest for common ground with the skeptic

Nor should one grant the hypothetical possibility of a world independent of God that can successfully function and be successfully understood in terms of the axioms of logic and science

Characteristics of the Challenger In spite of general revelation, the pagan world does not know the true and the living God because of the distorting nature of worldly wisdom (1 Corinthians 1:21). Fallen man's intellectual sin bias is so basic and so complete that even when he is exposed to God's truth in plain language through the special revelation of Scripture, he still does not know God's truth in any spiritually significant sense (1 Corinthians 2:14). He knows but he does not know (Isaiah 6:9). The god of this age has blinded his mind (2 Corinthians 4:4). He is like an illiterate man with an open book in his hands (Isaiah 29:12). He sees God's truth spelled out before him but he cannot grasp its meaning, for to rationally comprehend God's truth is to be persuaded by it and to submit to it in faith. To know the formal content of God's special revelation and not to believe is to see without perceiving (cf. Acts 28:24-28). http://meaningoflife.tv/video.php?speaker=albacete&topic=death

In spite of general revelation, the pagan world does not know the true and the living God because of the distorting nature of worldly wisdom (1 Corinthians 1:21).

Fallen man's intellectual sin bias is so basic and so complete that even when he is exposed to God's truth in plain language through the special revelation of Scripture, he still does not know God's truth in any spiritually significant sense (1 Corinthians 2:14).

He knows but he does not know (Isaiah 6:9). The god of this age has blinded his mind (2 Corinthians 4:4).

He is like an illiterate man with an open book in his hands (Isaiah 29:12). He sees God's truth spelled out before him but he cannot grasp its meaning, for to rationally comprehend God's truth is to be persuaded by it and to submit to it in faith.

To know the formal content of God's special revelation and not to believe is to see without perceiving (cf. Acts 28:24-28).

How should we defend? First, Christian truth is best defended when it is held both firmly and humbly Second, our knowledge of biblical truth should grow over a lifetime. Third, Jesus said that the meek, not the belligerent, will inherit the earth. Fourth, no matter how adept our advocacy of the faith, we must glory in the Lord and not in our apologetic prowess. Fifth, whatever our skill at defending the faith, any humble presentation of Christian truth is a powerful tool in God's hands. http://www.equip.org/free/DA152.htm

First, Christian truth is best defended when it is held both firmly and humbly

Second, our knowledge of biblical truth should grow over a lifetime.

Third, Jesus said that the meek, not the belligerent, will inherit the earth.

Fourth, no matter how adept our advocacy of the faith, we must glory in the Lord and not in our apologetic prowess.

Fifth, whatever our skill at defending the faith, any humble presentation of Christian truth is a powerful tool in God's hands.

Where should we start? Theology? History? Philosophy? Religion? Doctrine? Science? http://www.str.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=5350#3bible ?

Theology?

History?

Philosophy?

Religion?

Doctrine?

Science?

The Truth About The Da Vinci Code Responding to the book & movie’s claims Why not with a HOT topic? A great introduction into apologetics!

Questions From the Book: Is Jesus God? Is the Bible true? Was Jesus married? Lost Books of the Bible - Are They Real? What is the Sacred Feminine? What about the Holy Grail?

Is Jesus God?

Is the Bible true?

Was Jesus married?

Lost Books of the Bible - Are They Real?

What is the Sacred Feminine?

What about the Holy Grail?

Is Jesus God? “ My dear,” Teabing, declared, "until that moment in history, Jesus was viewed by His followers as a mortal prophet. . . a great and powerful man, but a man nevertheless. A mortal." "Not the Son of God?" "Right," Teabing, said. "Jesus' establishment as the Son of God was officially proposed and voted on by the Council of Nicaea." The Da Vinci Code p. 233

“ My dear,” Teabing, declared, "until that moment in history, Jesus was viewed by His followers as a mortal prophet. . . a great and powerful man, but a man nevertheless. A mortal." "Not the Son of God?" "Right," Teabing, said. "Jesus' establishment as the Son of God was officially proposed and voted on by the Council of Nicaea."

The Da Vinci Code p. 233

Is Jesus God? Consider This: Jesus was viewed as divine from the very beginning of Christianity. He is referred to as God at least seven times in the New Testament and Lord as a divine title many other times. Consider This: The earliest documents from the Christian church ascribe to Jesus divine status. Consider This: The entire flow of the Old Testament requires that God come into the world, as Immanuel (God-with-us e.g. Isaiah 7:14).

Consider This: Jesus was viewed as divine from the very beginning of Christianity. He is referred to as God at least seven times in the New Testament and Lord as a divine title many other times.

Consider This: The earliest documents from the Christian church ascribe to Jesus divine status.

Consider This: The entire flow of the Old Testament requires that God come into the world, as Immanuel (God-with-us e.g. Isaiah 7:14).

Is Jesus God? "Many scholars claim that the early Church literally stole Jesus from His original followers." Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p. 233

"Many scholars claim that the early Church literally stole Jesus from His original followers."

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p. 233

Is Jesus God? Consider This: Even non-Christian writings from Romans such as Celsus, Pliny and Lucian state that the Christians venerated Jesus as God. Consider This: Jesus' original followers were routinely martyred for their belief that Jesus was God - a belief they would not recant even unto death. Consider This: It is always possible to find someone holding such a view, but to claim there are many is simply untrue.

Consider This: Even non-Christian writings from Romans such as Celsus, Pliny and Lucian state that the Christians venerated Jesus as God.

Consider This: Jesus' original followers were routinely martyred for their belief that Jesus was God - a belief they would not recant even unto death.

Consider This: It is always possible to find someone holding such a view, but to claim there are many is simply untrue.

Is the Bible True? "The Bible is a product of man my dear, not of God." Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p. 231

"The Bible is a product of man my dear, not of God."

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p. 231

Is the Bible True? Consider This: The Bible is the most reliable book of antiquity - with more manuscript evidence and less significant variations deviation than any other, by a long shot. Consider This: The Bible demonstrates its inspired origin in many ways, including its lofty doctrine, its historical precision, its predictive prophecy and the way that it was acclaimed by Old and New Testament figures, especially Jesus and the apostles.

Consider This: The Bible is the most reliable book of antiquity - with more manuscript evidence and less significant variations deviation than any other, by a long shot.

Consider This: The Bible demonstrates its inspired origin in many ways, including its lofty doctrine, its historical precision, its predictive prophecy and the way that it was acclaimed by Old and New Testament figures, especially Jesus and the apostles.

Is the Bible True? "[The Bible] has evolved through countless translations, additions, and revisions. History has never had a definitive version of the book." Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p. 231

"[The Bible] has evolved through countless translations, additions, and revisions. History has never had a definitive version of the book."

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p. 231

Is the Bible True? Consider This: The New Testament has more manuscript evidence for its preservation as the original authors wrote than any other book in antiquity. Consider This: The nearly complete consistency between the many versions is recognized as an astonishing testimony to its single origin.

Consider This: The New Testament has more manuscript evidence for its preservation as the original authors wrote than any other book in antiquity.

Consider This: The nearly complete consistency between the many versions is recognized as an astonishing testimony to its single origin.

Is the Bible True? "The Bible as we know it today was collated by the pagan Roman emperor Constantine the Great." Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p. 231

"The Bible as we know it today was collated by the pagan Roman emperor Constantine the Great."

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p. 231

Is the Bible True? Consider This: The earliest testimony we have today of a list which corresponds exactly to our New Testament is from Athanasius of Alexandria, in 367. However, the concept of a New Testament, and much of its content are attested as early as I Clement (95 AD), and is essentially the same as ours by the mid second century, which is 175 years before the Constantine’s rule (306-337). Consider This: Tradition strongly suggests Constantine became a Christian in 312. He did a lot for the church, including forbidding persecutions and calling councils, but it would not have occurred to him to collate the Bible.

Consider This: The earliest testimony we have today of a list which corresponds exactly to our New Testament is from Athanasius of Alexandria, in 367. However, the concept of a New Testament, and much of its content are attested as early as I Clement (95 AD), and is essentially the same as ours by the mid second century, which is 175 years before the Constantine’s rule (306-337).

Consider This: Tradition strongly suggests Constantine became a Christian in 312. He did a lot for the church, including forbidding persecutions and calling councils, but it would not have occurred to him to collate the Bible.

Is the Bible True? "Fortunately for historians, some of the gospels Constantine tried to eradicate somehow survived (in the Dead Sea Scrolls)." Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p. 234

"Fortunately for historians, some of the gospels Constantine tried to eradicate somehow survived (in the Dead Sea Scrolls)."

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p. 234

Is the Bible True? Consider This: There are two main types of documents contained in the scrolls: Biblical books (all except Esther), and a large collection of documents, some complete, some in fragments of stuff written by the Essenes. However, there is no Christian literature in the Dead Sea scrolls at all! Consider This: Not only was no attempt made to suppress these books, but they cast considerable light on the New Testament background.

Consider This: There are two main types of documents contained in the scrolls: Biblical books (all except Esther), and a large collection of documents, some complete, some in fragments of stuff written by the Essenes. However, there is no Christian literature in the Dead Sea scrolls at all!

Consider This: Not only was no attempt made to suppress these books, but they cast considerable light on the New Testament background.

Was Jesus Married? “ Jesus was the original feminist. He intended for the future of the church to be in the hands of Mary Magdalene” Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.248

“ Jesus was the original feminist. He intended for the future of the church to be in the hands of Mary Magdalene”

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.248

Was Jesus Married? Consider this: If Jesus had married Mary Magdalene, we would expect to see some type of her veneration in the history of the early church – like we see for Mary Jesus’ mother. However, there exists no reference or tradition anywhere to worship or veneration of Mary Magdalene. Consider this: The Son of God came to earth not to start a family but to save the Church, which is his true bride (Ephesians 5:22-33)

Consider this: If Jesus had married Mary Magdalene, we would expect to see some type of her veneration in the history of the early church – like we see for Mary Jesus’ mother. However, there exists no reference or tradition anywhere to worship or veneration of Mary Magdalene.

Consider this: The Son of God came to earth not to start a family but to save the Church, which is his true bride (Ephesians 5:22-33)

Was Jesus Married? “ If Jesus were not married, at least one of the Bible's gospel's would have mentioned it and offered some explanation for His unnatural state of bachelorhood.” Robert Langdon The Da Vinci Code p.245

“ If Jesus were not married, at least one of the Bible's gospel's would have mentioned it and offered some explanation for His unnatural state of bachelorhood.”

Robert Langdon The Da Vinci Code p.245

Was Jesus Married? Consider this: Whenever Jesus' family is referred to, it is his brothers and sisters who are mentioned, but never a wife. Contrast this to descriptions of the rest of the apostles: Peter, Paul, and the brothers of the Lord, all of whom are said to have had wives. Consider this: At the crucifixion, Jesus shows no special concern for the care of Mary Magdalene as he does his mother. Consider this: This claim commits the fallacy of Hasty Generalization – just because the majority of Jews would be married, it doesn’t follow that EVERY Jew would be.

Consider this: Whenever Jesus' family is referred to, it is his brothers and sisters who are mentioned, but never a wife. Contrast this to descriptions of the rest of the apostles: Peter, Paul, and the brothers of the Lord, all of whom are said to have had wives.

Consider this: At the crucifixion, Jesus shows no special concern for the care of Mary Magdalene as he does his mother.

Consider this: This claim commits the fallacy of Hasty Generalization – just because the majority of Jews would be married, it doesn’t follow that EVERY Jew would be.

Was Jesus Married? "When Grail legend speaks of 'the chalice that held the blood of Christ' … it speaks, in fact, of Mary Magdalene - the female womb that carried Jesus' royal bloodline." Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.249

"When Grail legend speaks of 'the chalice that held the blood of Christ' … it speaks, in fact, of Mary Magdalene - the female womb that carried Jesus' royal bloodline."

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.249

Was Jesus Married? Consider this: There exists no mention of a wife in any scripture of Jesus, in his ministry, when he was tried and crucified, or after his death. Consider this: The legend of the Grail is indeed about the lost cup from the Last Supper. But biblical language about a mothers’ womb is always a reference to gestation and protection, never about bloodlines. Indeed, shed blood was always about the opposite of birth, that is, death.

Consider this: There exists no mention of a wife in any scripture of Jesus, in his ministry, when he was tried and crucified, or after his death.

Consider this: The legend of the Grail is indeed about the lost cup from the Last Supper. But biblical language about a mothers’ womb is always a reference to gestation and protection, never about bloodlines. Indeed, shed blood was always about the opposite of birth, that is, death.

Was Jesus Married? "Companion of savior is Mary Magdalene. Christ loved her more than all the disciples and used to kiss her often on the mouth. The disciples were offended at this." Gospel of Philip The Da Vinci Code p. 246

"Companion of savior is Mary Magdalene. Christ loved her more than all the disciples and used to kiss her often on the mouth. The disciples were offended at this."

Gospel of Philip The Da Vinci Code p. 246

Was Jesus Married? Consider this: This passage comes from the Gnostic gospel of Philip and was written very late. It was written in Coptic, not Aramaic or Hebrew, and there IS no word in Aramaic where companion means spouse. Consider this: The actual manuscript is broken at this passage, so we don't know where it claims Jesus kissed Mary. Consider this: The Gospel of Philip is a Gnostic document, and Gnostics held that the physical expression of sex is not sacred or spiritual - it actually defiles the soul who believes by holding to the corrupt physical.

Consider this: This passage comes from the Gnostic gospel of Philip and was written very late. It was written in Coptic, not Aramaic or Hebrew, and there IS no word in Aramaic where companion means spouse.

Consider this: The actual manuscript is broken at this passage, so we don't know where it claims Jesus kissed Mary.

Consider this: The Gospel of Philip is a Gnostic document, and Gnostics held that the physical expression of sex is not sacred or spiritual - it actually defiles the soul who believes by holding to the corrupt physical.

Lost Books of the Bible "More than eighty gospels were considered for the New Testament, and yet only a relatively few were chosen." Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.231

"More than eighty gospels were considered for the New Testament, and yet only a relatively few were chosen."

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.231

Lost Books of the Bible Consider this: Other than the four recognized gospels, there are only eleven ancient documents still in existence today that are called "gospel" . Consider this: In all of antiquity, there are only twenty eight other sources no longer in existence that are cited or mentioned in Jewish or Gnostic writings as gospels. Consider this: Most of the Gnostic works are rejected because they are too late to be written by the purported authors, they rely heavily on the stories in the existing gospels, and they contradict the beliefs taught in the orthodox gospels.

Consider this: Other than the four recognized gospels, there are only eleven ancient documents still in existence today that are called "gospel" .

Consider this: In all of antiquity, there are only twenty eight other sources no longer in existence that are cited or mentioned in Jewish or Gnostic writings as gospels.

Consider this: Most of the Gnostic works are rejected because they are too late to be written by the purported authors, they rely heavily on the stories in the existing gospels, and they contradict the beliefs taught in the orthodox gospels.

Lost Books of the Bible "The Nag Hammadi and the Dead Sea Scrolls [are] the earliest Christian records." Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.245

"The Nag Hammadi and the Dead Sea Scrolls [are] the earliest Christian records."

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.245

Lost Books of the Bible Consider this: All of the Biblical gospels date from the last half of the first century, where the two texts the Da Vinci Code relies on most, the gospel of Philip and the gospel of Mary Magdalene, are from the third to fifth century.

Consider this: All of the Biblical gospels date from the last half of the first century, where the two texts the Da Vinci Code relies on most, the gospel of Philip and the gospel of Mary Magdalene, are from the third to fifth century.

Lost Books of the Bible "Constantine commissioned and financed a new Bible, which omitted those gospels that spoke of Christ's human traits and embellished those gospels that made Him godlike.” Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.234

"Constantine commissioned and financed a new Bible, which omitted those gospels that spoke of Christ's human traits and embellished those gospels that made Him godlike.”

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.234

Lost Books of the Bible Consider this: All four canonical gospels exist in lists of church scripture as early as Papias (c. 115 AD) and Justin Martyr (d. 165) and no other gospels ever appear in any list as authoritative. Consider this: Constantine did not summon the council of Nicaea until A.D. 325 - far too late for this claim to be taken seriously.

Consider this: All four canonical gospels exist in lists of church scripture as early as Papias (c. 115 AD) and Justin Martyr (d. 165) and no other gospels ever appear in any list as authoritative.

Consider this: Constantine did not summon the council of Nicaea until A.D. 325 - far too late for this claim to be taken seriously.

Lost Books of the Bible “ Those who 'chose' the original history of Christ were the world's first heretics.” Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.234

“ Those who 'chose' the original history of Christ were the world's first heretics.”

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.234

Lost Books of the Bible Consider this: The Gnostic gospels reflect a line of thinking that didn't arise until the second century, and it was criticized by the early church fathers Irenaeus, Hippolytus and Tertullian. Consider this: Irenaeus makes it clear that the so-called gospels of the Gnostics are heretical precisely because they were secret documents. The Apostolic writings commend themselves because they are public and verifiable.

Consider this: The Gnostic gospels reflect a line of thinking that didn't arise until the second century, and it was criticized by the early church fathers Irenaeus, Hippolytus and Tertullian.

Consider this: Irenaeus makes it clear that the so-called gospels of the Gnostics are heretical precisely because they were secret documents. The Apostolic writings commend themselves because they are public and verifiable.

The Sacred Feminine " Powerful men in the early church ‘conned’ the world by propagating lies that devalued the female and tipped the scales in favor of the masculine." Robert Langdon, The Da Vinci Code p.124

" Powerful men in the early church ‘conned’ the world by propagating lies that devalued the female and tipped the scales in favor of the masculine."

Robert Langdon, The Da Vinci Code p.124

The Sacred Feminine Consider this: The Advent of Christianity radically transformed the fate of women. Even ancient Roman pagan scholars agree that it was a turning point for the freedom and dignity of women. Consider this: According to sociology scholar Steven Goldberg, “The findings of the past 50 years [have] failed to include a single shred of evidence that such matriarchies had ever existed… All the claims of societies ruled by women are nonsense. We have no reason to believe they ever existed.”

Consider this: The Advent of Christianity radically transformed the fate of women. Even ancient Roman pagan scholars agree that it was a turning point for the freedom and dignity of women.

Consider this: According to sociology scholar Steven Goldberg, “The findings of the past 50 years [have] failed to include a single shred of evidence that such matriarchies had ever existed… All the claims of societies ruled by women are nonsense. We have no reason to believe they ever existed.”

The Sacred Feminine "Constantine and his male successors successfully converted the world from matriarchal paganism to patriarchal Christianity by waging a campaign of propaganda that demonized the sacred feminine." Robert Langdon, The Da Vinci Code p.124

"Constantine and his male successors successfully converted the world from matriarchal paganism to patriarchal Christianity by waging a campaign of propaganda that demonized the sacred feminine."

Robert Langdon, The Da Vinci Code p.124

The Sacred Feminine Consider this: “ Christian Gnosticism” emerged in the seventh century and it has gained a growing popularity over the centuries. It is currently known as Sophian Gnosticism and has found followers among many of the churches of our day The Gnostics held several views that were opposed to biblical Christianity. They believed there was a “sacred relationship between Jesus and Mary Magdalene.” They also accepted the idea that Goddess worship was central to understanding man’s spiritual destiny and that the ‘sacred feminine’ (or the ‘divine goddess’ as Brown puts it), is the foundation stone that Christianity is built on, even though it has been obscured. This knowledge is gained by attaining wisdom through the teachings of Sophia – the Goddess of Wisdom – and her counterparts within the church. http://www.christianinformation.org/article.asp?artID=105

Consider this:

“ Christian Gnosticism” emerged in the seventh century and it has gained a growing popularity over the centuries. It is currently known as Sophian Gnosticism and has found followers among many of the churches of our day

The Gnostics held several views that were opposed to biblical Christianity. They believed there was a “sacred relationship between Jesus and Mary Magdalene.”

They also accepted the idea that Goddess worship was central to understanding man’s spiritual destiny and that the ‘sacred feminine’ (or the ‘divine goddess’ as Brown puts it), is the foundation stone that Christianity is built on, even though it has been obscured. This knowledge is gained by attaining wisdom through the teachings of Sophia – the Goddess of Wisdom – and her counterparts within the church.

The Sacred Feminine Consider this: Christian women were powerful witnesses to Jesus' message, often despite the sinfulness of a male-dominated culture. Examples throughout many centuries include: Perpetua Monica Clare Teresa of Avila Julian of Norwich Catherine of Sienna Katherina von Bora Susanna Wesley Catherine Booth Mother Teresa Anne Graham Lotz

Consider this: Christian women were powerful witnesses to Jesus' message, often despite the sinfulness of a male-dominated culture.

Examples throughout many centuries include:

Perpetua

Monica

Clare

Teresa of Avila

Julian of Norwich

Catherine of Sienna

Katherina von Bora

Susanna Wesley

Catherine Booth

Mother Teresa

Anne Graham Lotz

The Sacred Feminine "According to these unaltered gospels, it was not Peter to whom Christ gave directions with which to establish the Christian Church. It was Mary Magdalene." Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.248

"According to these unaltered gospels, it was not Peter to whom Christ gave directions with which to establish the Christian Church. It was Mary Magdalene."

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.248

The Sacred Feminine Consider This: The Gnostic Gospel of Thomas , to which the book refers, records Jesus as wanting to transform Mary Magdalene into a man to make her acceptable to enter heaven.

Consider This: The Gnostic Gospel of Thomas , to which the book refers, records Jesus as wanting to transform Mary Magdalene into a man to make her acceptable to enter heaven.

The Sacred Feminine "The Priory [of Sion's] membership has included some of history's most cultured individuals: men like Botticelli, Sir Isaac Newton, victor Hugo... and Leonardo Da Vinci... The Priory has a well documented history of reverence for the sacred feminine." Robert Langdon, The Da Vinci Code p.113

"The Priory [of Sion's] membership has included some of history's most cultured individuals: men like Botticelli, Sir Isaac Newton, victor Hugo... and Leonardo Da Vinci... The Priory has a well documented history of reverence for the sacred feminine."

Robert Langdon, The Da Vinci Code p.113

The Sacred Feminine Consider this: The modern Priory of Sion was created in 1954 by Pierre Plantard. All documents “proving” a blood line and a list of historical Priory members were proven to be forged in a French court of law. Consider this: Much of the supposed research done for The Da Vinci Code is embarrassingly incorrect

Consider this: The modern Priory of Sion was created in 1954 by Pierre Plantard. All documents “proving” a blood line and a list of historical Priory members were proven to be forged in a French court of law.

Consider this: Much of the supposed research done for The Da Vinci Code is embarrassingly incorrect

The Holy Grail "Mary Magdalene became secretly known by many pseudonyms - the Chalice, the Holy Grail..." Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.254

"Mary Magdalene became secretly known by many pseudonyms - the Chalice, the Holy Grail..."

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.254

The Holy Grail Consider This: Before the twelfth century, there were no legends about the grail; by the thirteenth century, the tale had become intertwined with Arthurian legends. The characters from Chretien's story developed into supposed historical figures from the Gospels, and the grail had become the Holy Grail.

Consider This: Before the twelfth century, there were no legends about the grail; by the thirteenth century, the tale had become intertwined with Arthurian legends. The characters from Chretien's story developed into supposed historical figures from the Gospels, and the grail had become the Holy Grail.

The Holy Grail ""The word Sangreal derives from San Greal - or Holy Grail. But in the most ancient form, the word Sangreal was divided in a different spot.. Sang Real .. literally mean[ing] Royal Blood." Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.250

""The word Sangreal derives from San Greal - or Holy Grail. But in the most ancient form, the word Sangreal was divided in a different spot.. Sang Real .. literally mean[ing] Royal Blood."

Sir Leigh Teabing, The Da Vinci Code p.250

The Holy Grail Consider This: There is no historical evidence to connect the ancient female symbol of the chalice to the Holy Grail, since the grail's concept can only be traced back as far as the twelfth century. Consider This: The re-division of the word Sangreal into Sang Real or Royal Blood appears to be completely manufactured.

Consider This: There is no historical evidence to connect the ancient female symbol of the chalice to the Holy Grail, since the grail's concept can only be traced back as far as the twelfth century.

Consider This: The re-division of the word Sangreal into Sang Real or Royal Blood appears to be completely manufactured.

Find out the Truth! For more information, articles and news about responding to The Da Vinci Code , log onto www.thetruthaboutdavinci.com

For more information, articles and news about responding to The Da Vinci Code ,

log onto www.thetruthaboutdavinci.com

Next … 2 Timothy 3 16 All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, 17 that the man of God* may be competent, equipped for every good work. *That is, a messenger of God (the phrase echoes a common Old Testament expression) Scripture, the Canon and the development of the Bible

*That is, a messenger of God (the phrase echoes a common Old Testament expression)

Scripture, the Canon and the development of the Bible We thank God constantly for this, that when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of any human being but as what it really is, the word of God which is at work in you believers’ (1 Thess. ii. 13).

We thank God constantly for this, that when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of any human being but as what it really is, the word of God which is at work in you believers’ (1 Thess. ii. 13).

I. Scripture, the Canon and the development of the Bible Scripture Bible: the sacred writings of the Christian religions; "he went to carry the Word to the heathen" any writing that is regarded as sacred by a religious group wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn Canon This is another word for scripture. The Canon consists of the 39 books of the Old Testament and the 27 books of the New. The Canon is closed which means there is no more revelation to become Scripture. www.carm.org/dictionary/dic_c-d.htm The Bible The Bible (from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, "(the) books", plural of βιβλιον, biblion, "book", originally a diminutive of βιβλος, biblos, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos, meaning "papyrus", from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported this writing material), is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bible Basically – in context for a Christian – these all mean the same thing

Scripture

Bible: the sacred writings of the Christian religions; "he went to carry the Word to the heathen"

any writing that is regarded as sacred by a religious group wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

Canon

This is another word for scripture. The Canon consists of the 39 books of the Old Testament and the 27 books of the New. The Canon is closed which means there is no more revelation to become Scripture. www.carm.org/dictionary/dic_c-d.htm

The Bible

The Bible (from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, "(the) books", plural of βιβλιον, biblion, "book", originally a diminutive of βιβλος, biblos, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos, meaning "papyrus", from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported this writing material), is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bible

Bible Basics When was the Bible written? Between 1450 BC and 90 AD.There are two parts to the Bible. The Old Testament, (Hebrew:Tanach) and New Testament. The Old Testament was written between 1450 BC and 425 BC. The New Testament was written between 45 AD and 90 AD. What language was the Bible written in? The Bible is written in 3 languages. The Old Tesament is written in two languages; Hebrew and Aramaic. The parts written in Aramaic are: Daniel 2:4-7:28, Ezra 4:48-6:18, 7:11-26, Jeremiah   10:11, Genesis 31:47 (2 words) The New Testament is written in Koine Greek. Who wrote the Bible? The Bible was written over a period of  1500 hundred years. By more then 40 differnet authors, from every walk of life. On three differnent continents. The Old Testament was written by 29 differnet authors over a 1000 year period, including kings, prime ministers, priests and shepards. The New Testament was written by 10 to 11 different authors over 45 year period of time, including a rabbi, tax collector, fisherman, physician and others. http://www.truthnet.org/Christianity/Apologetics/IsthebiblefromGod7/

When was the Bible written?

Between 1450 BC and 90 AD.There are two parts to the Bible. The Old Testament, (Hebrew:Tanach) and New Testament.

The Old Testament was written between 1450 BC and 425 BC.

The New Testament was written between 45 AD and 90 AD.

What language was the Bible written in?

The Bible is written in 3 languages.

The Old Tesament is written in two languages; Hebrew and Aramaic.

The parts written in Aramaic are: Daniel 2:4-7:28, Ezra 4:48-6:18, 7:11-26, Jeremiah   10:11, Genesis 31:47 (2 words)

The New Testament is written in Koine Greek.

Who wrote the Bible?

The Bible was written over a period of  1500 hundred years. By more then 40 differnet authors, from every walk of life. On three differnent continents.

The Old Testament was written by 29 differnet authors over a 1000 year period, including kings, prime ministers, priests and shepards.

The New Testament was written by 10 to 11 different authors over 45 year period of time, including a rabbi, tax collector, fisherman, physician and others.

How did we get the Bible? Inspiration – the means Canonization – the process "Homologoumena“ – virtually all early church leaders agreed canon "Antilegomena“ – agree canon, some dispute exists "Apocrypha“ – most agree not canon "Pseudepigrapha” – virtually all agree not canon "Criteria for Canonicity" justify the books that have been included in the Old and New Testament, which are judged to have satisfied the following: Apostolic Origin — attributed to and based on the preaching/teaching of the first-generation apostles (or their close companions). Universal Acceptance — acknowledged by all major Christian communities in the ancient world (by the end of the fourth century). Liturgical Use — read publicly when early Christian communities gathered for the Lord's Supper (their ly worship services). Consistent Message — containing a theological outlook similar or complementary to other accepted Christian writings. http://www.ou.edu/faculty/organizations/ouchrfas/reed11.htm

Inspiration – the means

Canonization – the process

"Homologoumena“ – virtually all early church leaders agreed canon

"Antilegomena“ – agree canon, some dispute exists

"Apocrypha“ – most agree not canon

"Pseudepigrapha” – virtually all agree not canon

"Criteria for Canonicity" justify the books that have been included in the Old and New Testament, which are judged to have satisfied the following:

Apostolic Origin — attributed to and based on the preaching/teaching of the first-generation apostles (or their close companions).

Universal Acceptance — acknowledged by all major Christian communities in the ancient world (by the end of the fourth century).

Liturgical Use — read publicly when early Christian communities gathered for the Lord's Supper (their ly worship services).

Consistent Message — containing a theological outlook similar or complementary to other accepted Christian writings.

The Old Testament The Jewish use of versions. In the synagogue the Hebrew scripture itself was read from a scroll, followed by a translation into Aramaic or Greek given by the Methurgeman (translator). The translation was never read from a scroll, because the Jews were determined not to give any version such an illusion of authority; the translation had to be memorized or done extemporaneously. In the beginning the translations were not even written down. When they were eventually written down they were not made widely available, and were not "authorized" in any sense by the Rabbis. The Greek version of the Old Testament, called the Septuagint. About two hundred years before the birth of Christ a Greek translation of the Pentateuch was committed to writing in Alexandria, where many Jews only knew Greek. This version was later called the Septuagint because legend has it that the translation was done by seventy (Latin septuaginta ) men. Gradually the other books of the Old Testament were also put in Greek. The Septuagint gives a fairly accurate translation of the Pentateuch, which was read most closely by the Jews, but for the prophetical books like Isaiah and Jeremiah the translation is often quite loose and even erroneous, and in need of correction. Apostolic use of the Septuagint. The quotations of the Old Testament in the New show that the apostles often used the Septuagint , because it was generally known to those in the Church and usually adequate for their purposes. Some people in looking at these quotations have been troubled by the fact that they are sometimes not very accurate translations of the Hebrew. Did the apostles not know their business? Of course they did. They did not concern themselves with corrections when the translation served well enough for their purpose, but when it did not they quietly offered their own translation of the Hebrew. Then they usually offered a better translation. The apostles did not see fit to produce a complete version of the Old Testament in Greek for the use of the churches.

The Jewish use of versions. In the synagogue the Hebrew scripture itself was read from a scroll, followed by a translation into Aramaic or Greek given by the Methurgeman (translator). The translation was never read from a scroll, because the Jews were determined not to give any version such an illusion of authority; the translation had to be memorized or done extemporaneously. In the beginning the translations were not even written down. When they were eventually written down they were not made widely available, and were not "authorized" in any sense by the Rabbis.

The Greek version of the Old Testament, called the Septuagint. About two hundred years before the birth of Christ a Greek translation of the Pentateuch was committed to writing in Alexandria, where many Jews only knew Greek. This version was later called the Septuagint because legend has it that the translation was done by seventy (Latin septuaginta ) men. Gradually the other books of the Old Testament were also put in Greek. The Septuagint gives a fairly accurate translation of the Pentateuch, which was read most closely by the Jews, but for the prophetical books like Isaiah and Jeremiah the translation is often quite loose and even erroneous, and in need of correction.

Apostolic use of the Septuagint. The quotations of the Old Testament in the New show that the apostles often used the Septuagint , because it was generally known to those in the Church and usually adequate for their purposes. Some people in looking at these quotations have been troubled by the fact that they are sometimes not very accurate translations of the Hebrew. Did the apostles not know their business? Of course they did. They did not concern themselves with corrections when the translation served well enough for their purpose, but when it did not they quietly offered their own translation of the Hebrew. Then they usually offered a better translation. The apostles did not see fit to produce a complete version of the Old Testament in Greek for the use of the churches.

The New Testament Documents Christ’s existence is established clearly by the primary documents of the New Testament (NT). more than 5,000 Greek manuscripts, in whole or part, establish the body of New Testament literature (Metzger, 1968, p. 36). All of the New Testament had been completed within sixty years or so of Jesus’ death. Of those twenty-seven books, no less than ten were penned by personal companions of the Lord. Paul, an eyewitness of the resurrected Savior, wrote thirteen or fourteen of the remainder. The New Testament contains irrefutable evidence of the existence of Jesus. http://www.christiancourier.com/archives/historicityJesus.htm

Christ’s existence is established clearly by the primary documents of the New Testament (NT).

more than 5,000 Greek manuscripts, in whole or part, establish the body of New Testament literature (Metzger, 1968, p. 36).

All of the New Testament had been completed within sixty years or so of Jesus’ death.

Of those twenty-seven books, no less than ten were penned by personal companions of the Lord.

Paul, an eyewitness of the resurrected Savior, wrote thirteen or fourteen of the remainder.

The New Testament contains irrefutable evidence of the existence of Jesus.

http://www.christiancourier.com/archives/historicityJesus.htm

Canon Challenges/Resolution Part of the problem in confirming authorship lay in the fact that--unlike the Old Testament books that were received by a localized community of Jewish believers--the New Testament community of believers was dispersed throughout the Roman Empire. Persecutions, as well as transportation and communication obstacles, impeded the circulation of writings across the far-flung communities of believers. Some books that were considered canonical in the eastern part of the Roman empire were not well known in the western part of the empire, and vice versa. Thus, it took time to sort through the evidences in favor of authenticity. The process culminated in the major councils of Hippo (393 A.D.) Carthage (397 A.D.) Carthage (419 A.D.) All three councils agreed to the same set of books in setting the Old and New Testament canon. http://www.ou.edu/faculty/organizations/ouchrfas/reed11.htm

Part of the problem in confirming authorship lay in the fact that--unlike the Old Testament books that were received by a localized community of Jewish believers--the New Testament community of believers was dispersed throughout the Roman Empire.

Persecutions, as well as transportation and communication obstacles, impeded the circulation of writings across the far-flung communities of believers. Some books that were considered canonical in the eastern part of the Roman empire were not well known in the western part of the empire, and vice versa.

Thus, it took time to sort through the evidences in favor of authenticity. The process culminated in the major councils of

Hippo (393 A.D.)

Carthage (397 A.D.)

Carthage (419 A.D.)

All three councils agreed to the same set of books in setting the Old and New Testament canon.

Fact Sheet: The Apocrypha Roman Catholic Church differs from the Hebrew canon and Protestant Old Testament canon (which are the same) by including eleven/twelve of the fifteen available books in the Old Testament canon. Most written in the "intertestamental period," from about 400 B.C. to the opening of the NT canon (1 AD). None of these books were ever seriously considered by the Jewish community as inspired. Indeed, it was widely held by the Jewish community that the line of prophets had come to an end after Malachi's time (approximately 400 B.C.) http://www.ou.edu/faculty/organizations/ouchrfas/reed11.htm

Roman Catholic Church differs from the Hebrew canon and Protestant Old Testament canon (which are the same) by including eleven/twelve of the fifteen available books in the Old Testament canon.

Most written in the "intertestamental period," from about 400 B.C. to the opening of the NT canon (1 AD).

None of these books were ever seriously considered by the Jewish community as inspired.

Indeed, it was widely held by the Jewish community that the line of prophets had come to an end after Malachi's time (approximately 400 B.C.)

http://www.ou.edu/faculty/organizations/ouchrfas/reed11.htm

Fact Sheet: “Lost Gospels” & Gnosticism Gnosos means “To Know” - Gnostics believed that salvation was attained through attaining knowledge. Pagan mythology and philosophies began to fall with the spread of Christianity Temple-prostitutes would facilitate worship with Aphrodite/Venus, Ishtar, Astoria. The Churches at Pergamum and Thyatira were warned about proto-Gnostism and sexual immorality http://www.debunkingdavinci.com/ Gnostic “Gospels” were named after known Bible characters to justify Gnostic doctrine Gnostic works contradicted both the Old and New Testament Scriptures…the God of the OT was viewed as an evil demon and the serpent as good. Gnostic works were not connected to the Apostles…but battled their teachings. Gnostic works quoted from the Scriptures…the Scriptures do not quotes from Gnostic works. The Da Vinci Code Fiction: Constantine…held a gathering known as the council of Nicea…(325 A.D.)…Until that moment in history Jesus was viewed by his followers as a mortal prophet…not the Son of God…Jesus’ establishment as the ‘Son of God’ was…a relatively close vote (Page 233) The Facts: Fact: The Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) was not a close vote, 300 bishops from throughout the Empire arrived to discuss the Arius, teaching that the Son was created, and therefore not God incarnate, the vote was 300 to 2…not close at all. Arius did not believe the Son was mortal but the first of creation.

Gnosos means “To Know” - Gnostics believed that salvation was attained through attaining knowledge.

Pagan mythology and philosophies began to fall with the spread of Christianity

Temple-prostitutes would facilitate worship with Aphrodite/Venus, Ishtar, Astoria.

The Churches at Pergamum and Thyatira were warned about proto-Gnostism and sexual immorality

Gnostic “Gospels” were named after known Bible characters to justify Gnostic doctrine

Gnostic works contradicted both the Old and New Testament Scriptures…the God of the OT was viewed as an evil demon and the serpent as good.

Gnostic works were not connected to the Apostles…but battled their teachings.

Gnostic works quoted from the Scriptures…the Scriptures do not quotes from Gnostic works.

The Da Vinci Code Fiction:

Constantine…held a gathering known as the council of Nicea…(325 A.D.)…Until that moment in history Jesus was viewed by his followers as a mortal prophet…not the Son of God…Jesus’ establishment as the ‘Son of God’ was…a relatively close vote (Page 233)

The Facts:

Fact: The Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) was not a close vote, 300 bishops from throughout the Empire arrived to discuss the Arius, teaching that the Son was created, and therefore not God incarnate, the vote was 300 to 2…not close at all. Arius did not believe the Son was mortal but the first of creation.

Is the Bible reliable? In his book, Can I Trust My Bible , R. Laird Harris concluded, "We can now be sure that copyists worked with great care and accuracy on the Old Testament, even back to 225 B.C. . . . indeed, it would be rash skepticism that would now deny that we have our Old Testament in a form very close to that used by Ezra when he taught the word of the Lord to those who had returned from the Babylonian captivity." To be skeptical of the 27 documents in the New Testament, and to say they are unreliable is to allow all of classical antiquity to slip into obscurity, for no documents of the ancient period are as well attested bibliographically as these in the New Testament. http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/bib-docu.html

In his book, Can I Trust My Bible , R. Laird Harris concluded, "We can now be sure that copyists worked with great care and accuracy on the Old Testament, even back to 225 B.C. . . . indeed, it would be rash skepticism that would now deny that we have our Old Testament in a form very close to that used by Ezra when he taught the word of the Lord to those who had returned from the Babylonian captivity."

To be skeptical of the 27 documents in the New Testament, and to say they are unreliable is to allow all of classical antiquity to slip into obscurity, for no documents of the ancient period are as well attested bibliographically as these in the New Testament.

http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/bib-docu.html

Ancient writings and the NT If the New Testament cannot be considered reliable, then neither can any of the other writings listed http://www.carm.org/evidence/Jesus_myth.htm

If the New Testament cannot be considered reliable, then neither can any of the other writings listed

http://www.carm.org/evidence/Jesus_myth.htm

What the Bible Is and Is Not Is Not… A science book – although it has scientific reliability A world history book – although it has verifiable historical data A philosophy book – although it contains “timeless truth” The answer to every question Deuteronomy 29:29 - "The secret things belong to the LORD our God, but the things that are revealed belong to us and to our children forever, that we may do all the words of this law. 1 Corinthians 13:12 - For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I have been fully known. Is… The only sufficient, certain, and infallible rule of all saving knowledge, faith, and obedience… THE 1689 BAPTIST CONFESSION OF FAITH

Is Not…

A science book – although it has scientific reliability

A world history book – although it has verifiable historical data

A philosophy book – although it contains “timeless truth”

The answer to every question

Deuteronomy 29:29 - "The secret things belong to the LORD our God, but the things that are revealed belong to us and to our children forever, that we may do all the words of this law.

1 Corinthians 13:12 - For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I have been fully known.

Is…

The only sufficient, certain, and infallible rule of all saving knowledge, faith, and obedience…

THE 1689 BAPTIST CONFESSION OF FAITH

Scripture, the Canon and the development of the Bible Homework Look: http://www.biblegateway.com/ & http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/topic/bible.html Listen: The Reliability of the Bible: Part 1 , Part 2 , Part 3 (MP3s), by Grant Osborne - A philosophical defense Learn: Hebrews 4:12

Homework

Look: http://www.biblegateway.com/ & http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/topic/bible.html

Listen: The Reliability of the Bible: Part 1 , Part 2 , Part 3 (MP3s), by Grant Osborne - A philosophical defense

Learn: Hebrews 4:12

II. Jesus Christ – Historicity The Historic Christ Several lines of evidence converge to establish the historical reality of the founder of the Christian religion: the New Testament documents (covered under the Reliability of the Bible) ancient Jewish sources Roman writings and early antagonists of Christianity http://www.christiancourier.com/archives/historicityJesus.htm http://www.neverthirsty.org/pp/hist/lucian.html

The Historic Christ

Several lines of evidence converge to establish the historical reality of the founder of the Christian religion:

the New Testament documents (covered under the Reliability of the Bible)

ancient Jewish sources

Roman writings and early antagonists of Christianity

http://www.christiancourier.com/archives/historicityJesus.htm

Jewish Testimony Flavius Josephus (A.D. 37-100). The earliest non-Christian testimony to the Lord’s existence is that of the Jewish historian In Antiquities of the Jews, the historian twice referred to Jesus. In one passage he called Jesus “the Christ,” referred to His “marvelous deeds,” and alluded to His death and resurrection (18.3.3). The Jewish Babylonian Talmud Collected into a final form in the fifth century A.D., it is derived from earlier materials, some of which originated in the first century. Its testimony to Jesus’ existence is all the more valuable, as it is extremely hostile. http://www.christiancourier.com/archives/historicityJesus.htm

Flavius Josephus (A.D. 37-100).

The earliest non-Christian testimony to the Lord’s existence is that of the Jewish historian

In Antiquities of the Jews, the historian twice referred to Jesus. In one passage he called Jesus “the Christ,” referred to His “marvelous deeds,” and alluded to His death and resurrection (18.3.3).

The Jewish Babylonian Talmud

Collected into a final form in the fifth century A.D., it is derived from earlier materials, some of which originated in the first century.

Its testimony to Jesus’ existence is all the more valuable, as it is extremely hostile.

http://www.christiancourier.com/archives/historicityJesus.htm

Antagonists of Christianity Celsus, a pagan philosopher of the second century A.D., produced the oldest extant literary attack against Christianity. His True Discourse (c. A.D. 178) was a bitter assault upon Christ. charged that Christ’s own people killed Him The resurrection was a deception. Celsus never questioned the historicity of Jesus. Lucian of Samosata (c. A.D. 115-200) was called “the Voltaire of Grecian literature.” wrote against Christianity with patronizing contempt said Christians worshipped the well-known “sophist” who was crucified in Palestine because He introduced new mysteries. He never denied the existence of Jesus. Porphyry of Tyre was born about A.D. 233 wrote fifteen books against the Christian faith, In Life of Pythagoras, he contended that magicians of the pagan world exhibited greater powers than Christ. His argument was an inadvertent concession of Jesus’ existence, and power.

Celsus, a pagan philosopher of the second century A.D., produced the oldest extant literary attack against Christianity.

His True Discourse (c. A.D. 178) was a bitter assault upon Christ.

charged that Christ’s own people killed Him

The resurrection was a deception.

Celsus never questioned the historicity of Jesus.

Lucian of Samosata (c. A.D. 115-200) was called “the Voltaire of Grecian literature.”

wrote against Christianity with patronizing contempt

said Christians worshipped the well-known “sophist” who was crucified in Palestine because He introduced new mysteries.

He never denied the existence of Jesus.

Porphyry of Tyre was born about A.D. 233

wrote fifteen books against the Christian faith,

In Life of Pythagoras, he contended that magicians of the pagan world exhibited greater powers than Christ.

His argument was an inadvertent concession of Jesus’ existence, and power.

Uniqueness of Christ "Whenever a professional archaeologist turns to a careful, detailed study of the gospels, only one thing dominates all his thinking. This is Jesus Christ himself. The personality of the Christ is unique and alone in all of human history. The archaeologist realizes more than anyone else the difference between B.C. and A.D." James L. Kelso – Late 19 th century archaeologist http://www.irr.org/yamauchi.html Video http://www.leestrobel.com/videos/davinci/strobelT1095.htm

"Whenever a professional archaeologist turns to a careful, detailed study of the gospels, only one thing dominates all his thinking. This is Jesus Christ himself. The personality of the Christ is unique and alone in all of human history. The archaeologist realizes more than anyone else the difference between B.C. and A.D."

James L. Kelso – Late 19 th century archaeologist

Uniqueness of Christ Only Jesus came out of a culture which was already monotheistic. “ Judaism after the exile represents a startling new development in the history of religion, and that it is the Jewish monotheistic conception of God that makes this religion stand out from all others” Peter Hayman Edinburgh, 21 August 1990, published as Monotheism - A Misused Word in Jewish Studies? , Journal of Jewish Studies 42 (1991) Only Jesus claimed equality with the sole, supreme deity. According to E.O. James, an authority on comparative religions, "Nowhere else had it ever been claimed that a historical founder of any relig

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