Dedifferentiation

80 %
20 %
Information about Dedifferentiation

Published on September 27, 2015

Author: HangJie

Source: slideshare.net

1. Dedifferentiation Presented by Hang Jie Justin Izz Hariz Por Kwang Jeff Zoe

2. Introduction O Dedifferentiation is an important biological phenomenon: Cells regress from a specialized function to a simpler state reminiscent of stem cells O Stem cells that are derived by dedifferentiation could be a new resource for regenerative medicine (poses no risk of genetic incompatibility or immune rejection) O It also offers an ethically acceptable alternative route to obtain an abundant source of stem cells compare than the use of stem cells derived from embryonic tissue - (CAI et al. 2007)

3. How to reprogram stem cells? O Experimented by - Takahashi and Yamanaka O Introduce four genes (Oct-3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and KLF4) into an adult mouse fibroblast population O Generate colonies with the characteristics of ESCs O Colonies were capable of differentiation to endodermal, ectodermal, and mesodermal lineages after transplant in immunodeficient mice - (Friedmann-Morvinski & Verma 2014)

4. - (EuroStemCell 2012)

5. Phenomenon of Dedifferentiation O The phenomenon can be observed at the level of : O Genetic - cell undergoes reversion to progenitor cell gene expression profile O Protein - evidenced by the up-regulation of progenitor & down-regulation of differentiated cell related proteins O Morphology - dedifferentiated cells are smaller, fewer organelles and have high karyoplasmic ratio O Functional - cells regains the capacity to proliferate - (CAI et al. 2007)

6. Medical Application & Research 1. To study neurological diseases O Obtain the neurons from patient through dedifferentiation of their skin cells and reprogram them into affected neurons O Thus able to further work on the affected neurons by searching and testing new drugs to treat or protect patients against the disease - (EuroStemCell 2012)

7. 2. Dedifferentiation of epithelial cells for corneal maintenance: O Stem cells in corneal limbus forming a ring of tissue around the central cornea, and epithelial cells in the central areas O After proliferating, stem cells differentiate into terminal corneal epithelial cells that replace the cells shed in the central cornea - (Yoon et al. 2014)

8. 3. Treatment of Osteoarthritis O Technique developed by - Dr Paul Genever O To revitalize cells from older people with osteoarthritis to repair worn or damaged cartilage, therefore reducing pain O Cultivated spheroid clusters of cells in tiny cavities, by using pharmaceutical to induce cell-self-eating effects and consequently reduce in size, which stimulate dedifferentiation and the cells revert to embryonic state - (Alexandra Thompson 2015)

9. Current Medical development -Clinical Stages O Masayo Takahashi, has been using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to prepare a treatment for age-related macular degeneration. O Skin cells taken from people with the disease and converted them to iPS cells. O Coax these cells to become retinal pigment epithelium cells, and then to grow into thin sheets that can be transplanted to the damaged retina. - (Cyranoski 2014)

10. Safety test O Researches has been done on iPS cells in monkey and there is no immune reaction found. O There have been concerns that iPS cells could cause tumours, but Takahashi's team has found that to be unlikely in mice and monkeys. - (Cyranoski 2014)

11. Future Application O Cartilage injury remains a challenge in orthopedic surgery due to the fact that articular cartilage has limited capacity for intrinsic healing. O The main cells in the cartilage are the chondrocytes. When they dedifferentiate, the tend to lose their bone like characteristics. O To generate more chondrocytes for studies, there will have to be a dedifferentiation of chondrocytes. - (Wei et al. 2012)

12. Future Application O Therefore through the dediffrentiation of chondrocytes, studies on redifferentiation of chondrocytes can be carried out. O Successful redifferentiation of chondrocytes can be used in replacing the dedifferentiated chondrocytes in the bones to improve the rate of cartilage healing. - (Lin et al. 2008)

13. Limitation in Dedifferentiation Process O High medical cost O Lack of large-scale culture technologies O Longer timeframe needed to prepare the cells for transplantation (eg: crucial spinal cord injuries) O Impractical to isolate neurons directly from a patient’s brain O Cells isolated from the patient will be affected and have a little therapeutic value

14. O Low quality of cells which derived from somatic cells of aged individuals (incidence of spontaneously occurring tumors) O Integration site of retroviral vectors and also the use of undefined serum-containing media to support IPSC generation will increase the risk of insertional mutagenesis and the risk of tumorigenicity O The use of oncogenic transgenes, such as MYC gene (code for transcription factor), can also increase the risk of tumour development Limitation in Dedifferentiation Process

15. Conclusion O Cell dedifferentiation is an important part of the life of a cell and is an important part of medical research O More research towards the dedifferentiation of cells are needed to be carried out to ensure that the dedifferentiation pathways are fully understood

16. References O Alexandra Thompson 2015, Researchers develop dedifferentiation technique to help treat osteoarthritis, viewed on 26th September 2015, <https://www.regmednet.com/users/1034-alexandra- thompson/posts/2947-researchers-develop-dedifferentiation-technique- to-help-treat-osteoarthritis#> O CAI, S., FU, X. & SHENG, Z., 2007. Dedifferentiation: A New Approach in Stem Cell Research. BioScience, 57(8), p.655, viewed on 26th September 2015, <http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/57/8/655> O Cyranoski, D 2014, Next-generation stem cells cleared for human trial, Nature, viewed on 26th September 2015, <http://www.nature.com/news/next-generation-stem-cells-cleared-for- human-trial-1.15897> O EuroStemCell 2012, IPS cells and reprogramming: turn any cell of the body into a stem cell, viewed on 26th September 2015, <http://www.eurostemcell.org/factsheet/ips-cells-and-reprogramming- turn-any-cell-body-stem-cell> O Friedmann-Morvinski, D. & Verma, I.M., 2014. Dedifferentiation and reprogramming: origins of cancer stem cells. EMBO reports, 15(3), pp.244–53, viewed on 26th Semptember 2015, <http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3989690&to ol=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract>

17. O Lin, Z. et al., 2008. Gene expression profiles of human chondrocytes during passaged monolayer cultivation. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 26(9), pp.1230–1237 O Wei, Y. et al., 2012. Chondrogenic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells from osteoarthritic chondrocytes in alginate matrix. European cells & materials, 23, pp.1–12, viewed on 26th September 2015, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22241609> O Yoon, J.J., Ismail, S. & Sherwin, T., 2014. Limbal stem cells: Central concepts of corneal epithelial homeostasis. World journal of stem cells, 6(4), pp.391–403, viewed on 26th September 2015, <http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid= 4172668&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract> References

18. Thank You 

Add a comment

Comments

 | 21/11/15
 | 01/12/15
 | 04/12/15
 | 04/12/15
 | 05/12/15
 | 06/12/15
 | 06/12/15
 | 12/12/15
v9py2ji743 | 23/01/16
http://www.msnbrand.com/brand-copy-IP-19.html 爆人気なルイヴィトンのスーパーコピールイヴィトンのスーパー新作コピーを大量入荷しました。上質な素材を使用して、最高な技術で、丁寧に作った商品です。様々な書類があって、超低価格で購入できます。そして、品質にも保証があって、本当に信頼できるいい店です。早くこちらへ選びましょう。ゴージャスなルイヴィトンのブランドスーパーコピーこちらは人気高いルイヴィトンのスーパーコピー商品をご提供いたします。新作が情報満載で、必ず好きのを見つかります。品質に対しては保証があって、信頼できる店です。激安な値段で、高級な商品を購入できます。いま、セールも進行していて、チャンスを逃げさず、チェックしましょう。世界超人気ブランドの商品コピーこちらは最高な品質の商品をご提供いたします。世界でもっと高いランクのブランド、例えば、バーバリー、ミュウミュウやフェンディなどの商品コピーして、品質を保証できて、信用できる店です。そして、商品の新作情報満載で、好きに選べます。早速こちらへチェックしましょう。人気モンクレールコピー商品が登場人気高いモンクレール全品コピーを販売しています。新品が情報満載で、いっぱい書類があって、勝手に選べます。今、様々なセールが進行していて、超低価格で高品質の製品を購入できて、チャンスを掴んで、チェックしましょう。}}}}}}
j1tl5dx700 | 04/02/16
http://www.bestevance.com/cartier/caise/ スーパーコピー 代引き,ヴィトン財布代引き,ヴィトン財布 人気,ヴィトン財布 激安,モノグラム 財布,マルチカラー 財布,ルイヴィトン財布新作,ルイヴィトン バッグ 新作,ルイヴィトン スーパーコピー 即日発送ルイヴィトン スーパーコピー 専門店ルイヴィトン スーパーコピー バッグルイヴィトン スーパーコピー }}}}}}
 | 29/08/16
 | 31/08/16
 | 25/09/17
 | 29/09/17
 | 24/10/17
 | 30/10/17

Related pages

Dedifferentiation - definition of dedifferentiation by The ...

2,6,7) However, more recent data have suggested that TC-RCCs with focal dedifferentiation (TC-D-RCC) may actually represent hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC ...
Read more

Dedifferentiation | Define Dedifferentiation at Dictionary.com

Dedifferentiation definition, a process by which structures or behaviors that were specialized for a specific function lose their specialization and become ...
Read more

Cellular differentiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dedifferentiation, or integration is a cellular process often seen in more basal life forms such as worms and amphibians in which a partially or terminally ...
Read more

Dedifferentiation | Definition of Dedifferentiation by ...

Seen and Heard. What made you want to look up dedifferentiation? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible).
Read more

dict.cc | dedifferentiation | Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch

Übersetzung für dedifferentiation im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch dict.cc. ... Unter folgender Adresse kannst du auf diese Übersetzung verlinken: http ...
Read more

Dedifferentiation: A New Approach in Stem Cell Research

Abstract. Dedifferentiation is an important biological phenomenon whereby cells regress from a specialized function to a simpler state ...
Read more

Dedifferentiation, transdifferentiation and reprogramming ...

Figure 1 | Overview of reprogramming, transdifferentiation and dedifferentiation. Pluripotent cells are capable of differentiating (solid arrows) down any ...
Read more

Dedifferentiation dictionary definition ...

Reversion of a specialized cell or tissue to an unspecialized form. Dedifferentiation may occur before the regeneration of appendages in plants and certain ...
Read more

Dedifferenzierung – Wikipedia

Dedifferenzierung beschreibt einen biologischen Prozess, bei dem Zellen ihre Zelltyp-spezifischen Eigenschaften verlieren. Sie führt damit zu einer ...
Read more