Published on April 26, 2014
DECONSTRUCTIONISM Reported by: Angelica Cyril C. Adivoso,RN MA BIOLOGY EDUCATION
VOCABULARIES: Ahistorical – not related to history. Apolitical – no interest in politics. Logocentricism – excessive attention paid to the meaning of words. Metalanguage – language or vocabulary used to describe language. Nihilistic- A doctrine holding that all values are baseless and that nothing can be known or communicated.
HISTORY It is initiated by Jacques Derrida 1960 It is a theory of literary criticism Questions traditional assumptions: certainty, identity, and truth; asserts that words can only refer to other words. He denied it was a doctrine or method.
The development was initiated at the Yale University between the 1960’s to 1980’s. Other Yale philosophers who contributed in deconstructionism are Paul de Man, Geoffrey Hartman and J. Hillis Miller.
OTHER INFLUENCES Richard Rorty (1931 -2007) “Accidental” features of a text.
In the 1970s the term was applied to work by Derrida, Paul de Man, J. Hillis Miller, and Barbara Johnson, among other scholars. In the 1980s it designated more loosely a range of radical theoretical enterprises in diverse areas of the humanities and social sciences.
DECONSTRUCTION IN PHILOSOPHY It is binary or hierarchical- involving a pair of terms, one is fundamental and the other one is secondary. Examples: nature and culture, speech and writing, mind and body, inside and outside To deconstruct an opposition is to explore the tensions and contradictions between the hierarchical in the text and its other meaning.
According to Jean - Jacques Rousseau, society and culture are both oppressing in “state of nature”, in which humans exist in self-sufficient and peaceful isolation. Then nature is prior to culture, yet in other sense culture is prior to nature.
Derrida also contends “logocentrism” which there is the realm of “truth.” Logocentrism encourages us to treat linguistic signs as distinct from and inessential to the phenomena they represent. The tendency to conceive fundamental philosophical concepts such as : truth reality being in terms of ideas such as presence/ essence, identity, and origin—and in the process to ignore the crucial role of absence and difference.
DECONSTRUCTION IN LITERARY STUDIES It is patterned after structuralism in France way back in the 1950’s. Structuralist movement in anthropology analyzed cultural phenomena as “signs” and attempted to develop metalanguage. 1970’s and 1980’s (US)- aid in transformation and animation of literary studies concerned about the language of nature, its meaning and relationship between human experiences and literature.
DECONSTRUCTION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE AND ARTS Influenced by the Psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud, drew attention to the formation of psyche.
In the U.S.A , the Legal Studies applied deconstruction to legal writing in an effort to reveal principles and counter principles.
INFLUENCE AND CRITICISM In all fields it called attention. It encouraged scholars to look beyond the relationship and the potential conflict between what the text says from what it does. It prompted exploration of fundamental oppositions and re-examination of ultimate goals. On the other hand, it receives criticisms from others calling it as nihilistic, ahistorical and apolitical . Despite some attacks it is still has some intellectual enterprises.
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